Effects of Vegetation in Mitigating the Toxicity of Pesticide Mixtures in Sediments of a Wetland Mesocosm
This study assessed effects of a mixture of two pesticides, diazinon and permethrin, on 48-h sediment toxicity to Hyalella azteca in a constructed wetland mesocosm containing non-vegetated and vegetated sections. Sediment samples were collected at inflow, middle, and back points within each section 5, 24, 72 h, 7, 14, and 21 days post-amendment. Pesticides were detected in sediments throughout non-vegetated and vegetated wetland sections. H. azteca 48-h survival varied across sampling period, wetland location, and vegetation type with lowest survival occurring within the first 72 h of the inflow and middle locations of the non-vegetated section. Sediment toxicity was ameliorated by 14 and 7 days within the non-vegetated and vegetated sections, respectively. Relationships between pesticide concentrations and animal survival indicated toxicity was from both diazinon and cis-permethrin in the non-vegetated section and primarily cis-permethrin in the vegetated section. Results show that vegetation ameliorated pesticide mixture 48-h sediment toxicity to H. azteca earlier and to a greater extent than non-vegetated constructed wetlands. A 21-day retention time is necessary to improve 48-h H. azteca sediment survival to ≥90% in wetlands of this size.
KeywordsDiazinon Permethrin Constructed wetland Hyalella azteca
Authors thank Lisa Brooks, Sam Testa III, John Massey, James Hill, and Dan McChesney for analytical assistance. Mention of equipment, computer programs or a pesticide does not constitute an endorsement for use by the US Department of Agriculture nor does it imply pesticide registration under FIFRA as amended. All programs and services of the USDA are offered on a non-discriminatory basis without regard to race, color, national origin, sex, marital status, or handicap.
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