Advertisement

Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 219, Issue 1–4, pp 507–526 | Cite as

Atmospheric Emission Inventory for Natural and Anthropogenic Sources and Spatial Emission Mapping for the Greater Athens Area

  • Victoria Aleksandropoulou
  • Kjetil Torseth
  • M. Lazaridis
Article

Abstract

A spatially, temporally and chemically resolved emission inventory for particulate matter and gaseous species from anthropogenic and natural sources was created for the Greater Athens Area (GAA; base year, 2007). Anthropogenic sources considered in this study include combustion (industrial, non-industrial, commercial and residential), industrial production, transportation, agriculture, waste treatment and solvent use. The annual gaseous pollutants (ΝΟx, SOx, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), CO and ΝΗ3) and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM2.5–10) emissions were derived from the UNECE/EMEP database for most source sectors (SNAP 1–9; 50 × 50 km2) and their spatial resolution was increased using surrogate spatial datasets (land cover, population density, location and emissions of large point sources, emission weighting factors for the GAA; 1 × 1 km2). The emissions were then temporally disaggregated in order to provide hourly emissions for atmospheric pollution modelling using monthly, daily and hourly disintegration coefficients, and additionally the chemical speciation of size-segregated particles and NMVOCs emissions was performed. Emissions from agriculture (SNAP 10) and natural emissions of particulate matter from the soil (by wind erosion) and the sea surface and of biogenic gaseous pollutants from vegetation were also estimated. During 2007 the anthropogenic emissions of CO, SOx, NOx, NMVOCs, NH3, PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 from the GAA were 151,150, 57,086, 68,008, 38,270, 2,219, 9,026 and 3,896 Mg, respectively. It was found that road transport was the major source for CO (73.3%), NMVOCs (31.6%) and NOx (35.3%) emissions in the area. Another important source for NOx emissions was other mobile sources and machinery (23.1%). Combustion for energy production and transformation industries was the major source for SOx (38.5%), industrial combustion for anthropogenic PM2.5–10 emissions (59.5%), whereas non-industrial combustion was the major source of PM2.5 emissions (49.6%). Agriculture was the primary NH3 source in the area (72.1%). Natural vegetation was found to be an important source of VOCs in the area which accounted for approximately the 5% of total VOCs emitted from GAA on a typical winter day. The contribution of sea-salt particles to the emissions of PM2.5 was rather small, whereas the emissions of resuspended dust particles exceeded by far the emissions of PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 from all anthropogenic sources.

Keywords

Emission inventory GIS Anthropogenic sources BVOCs Sea salt Resuspended dust 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This wok was initially supported by the Hellenic General Secretariat of Research & Technology (GSRT). This project (AEROMETRISI) is co-funded (75%) by the European Union and European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). The emission inventory has been recompiled for the purposes (initial approach) of the project ACEPT-AIR Development of a cost efficient policy tool for reduction of particulate matter in air (LIFE 09 ENV/GR/000289). The authors would like to thank Dr. Athanasios Sfetsos for the provision of the meteorological data for 14 Jan 2008.

References

  1. Aleksandropoulou, V., & Lazaridis, M. (2004). Spatial distribution of gaseous and particulate matter emissions in Greece. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 153, 15–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson-Sköld, Y., & Simpson, D. (2001). Secondary organic aerosol formation in northern Europe: a model study. Journal of Geophysical Resources, 106(D7), 7357–7374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Athanasopoulou, E., Tombrou, M., Pandis, S. N., & Russell, A. G. (2008). The role of sea-salt emissions and heterogeneous chemistry in the air quality of polluted coastal areas. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 8, 5755–5769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berdowski, J. J. M., Mulder, W., Veldt, C., Visschedijk, A. J. H., & Zandveld, P. Y. J. (1998). Particulate emissions (PM10-PM2.5-PM0.1) in Europe in 1990 and 1993. Bilthoven: National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM).Google Scholar
  5. Briggs, D. (2005). APMoSPHERE. London: Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine www.apmosphere.org.Google Scholar
  6. CEC (1985). Soil map of the European Communities, 1:1,000,000. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  7. Choi, Y. J., & Fernando, H. J. S. (2008). Implementation of a windblown dust parameterization into MODELS-3/CMAQ: application to episodic PM events in the US/Mexico border. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 6039–6046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Diapouli, E., Grivas, G., Chaloulakou, A., & Spyrellis, N. (2008). PM10 and ultrafine particles counts in-vehicle and on-road in the Athens area. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution: Focus, 8, 89–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dore, C., Goodwin, J., Hayman, G., & Winiwarter, W. (2001). IMPRESAREO - improving the spatial resolution of air emission inventories using earth observation data, WP 5000: Development of the method for more general application to urban air quality issues; WP6000: Evaluation, validation and refinement of spatially resolved inventories for a range of urban pollutants. Report AEAT/ENV/R/0462. Culham: AEA Technology.Google Scholar
  10. EEA CLC2000 (2009). Corine land cover 2000 (CLC2000) 100 m—version 12/2009 (2009). Available at: http://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/corine-land-cover-2000-clc2000-100-m-version-12-2009/. Accessed 15 June 2010.
  11. EFFIS (2009). European Forest Fire Information System. Available at: http://effis-viewer.jrc.ec.europa.eu/wmi/viewer.html. Accessed 15 May 2010.
  12. EL.STAT. (former GSNSS Greece) (2002). Population census 2001, Actual population per prefecture, municipality, municipal district and thorp. ΦΕΚ (gazette), 715/12-06-02, no. Β. Athens: Hellenic Statistical AuthorityGoogle Scholar
  13. EMEP (1999). Transboundary Photo-oxidants in Europe. EMEP Summary Report 2/1999.Google Scholar
  14. EMEP/CORINAIR (2007). EMEP/CORINAIR Atmospheric emission inventory guidebook—2007. EEA Technical Report 16/2007.Google Scholar
  15. EMEP/EEA (2009). EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook—2009. EEA Technical Report 9/2009.Google Scholar
  16. EMEP-MSC/W (2003). Unified EMEP model description. Oslo: Report No 1/2003 prepared by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute.Google Scholar
  17. EMEP-MSC/W (2004). Corrigendum to transboundary air pollution by main pollutants (S, N, O3) and PM—Greece, Data Note, 1/2004.Google Scholar
  18. EMEP/CLRTAP (2009). Emission used in EMEP models from Greece during 2007. EMEP Centre on Emission Inventories and Projections (CEIP). Available at: http://www.ceip.at/emission-data-webdab/emissions-used-in-emep-models/. Accessed 31 October 2010.
  19. E-PRTR (2009). European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register data base v1, as published on 09 Nov 2009. Available at: http://prtr.ec.europa.eu. Accessed 20 May 2010.
  20. ΕPER (2008). European Pollutant Emission Register. Available at: http://eper.ec.europa.eu/eper/. Accessed 20 May 2010.
  21. ESDB v2.0. (2004). The European Soil Database distribution version 2.0. European Commission and the European Soil Bureau Network. EUR 19945 EN.Google Scholar
  22. FAO FertiStat (2007). Fertilizer Use Statistics. Data for Greece during 1999/2000. Available at: http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/fertistat/. Accessed 5 May 2010.
  23. FAO–UNESCO (1974). FAO–UNESCO soil map of the world, vol. I: Legend. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  24. Fitzgerald, J. W. (1975). Approximation formulas for the equilibrium size of an aerosol particle as a function of its dry size and composition and the ambient relative humidity. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 14, 1044–1049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. FILOTIS (2010). Database for the natural environment of Greece. Available at: http://www.itia.ntua.gr/filotis. Accessed 5 May 2010.
  26. Friedrich, R., & Reis, S. (Eds.). (2004). Emissions of air pollutants—measurements, calculation and uncertainties. Berlin: Springer. GENEMIS, EUROTRAC-2 Subproject Final Report.Google Scholar
  27. Goodwin, J., Adams, M., Pye, S., & Vestreng, V. (2009). Spatial Emissions Mapping. In EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook—2009. EEA Technical Report 9/2009.Google Scholar
  28. Grell, G., Dudhia, J., & Stauffer, D. R. (1994). A description of the fifth generation Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5). Boulder: National Center for Atmospheric Research. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-398+STR.Google Scholar
  29. Grini, A., Myhre, G., Sundet, J., & Isaksen, I. (2002). Modeling the annual cycle of sea-salt in the global 3-d model OSLO CTM-2: concentrations, fluxes, and radiative impact. Journal of Climate, 15(13), 1717–1730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guenther, A., Monson, R., & Fall, R. (1991). Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: observations with eucalyptus and emission rate algorithm development. Journal of Geophysical Research, 96, 10799–10808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hayman, G., Bartzis, J., Dore, C., Ekstrand, S., Goodwin, J., Licotti, C., et al. (2001). IMPRESAREO - improving the spatial resolution of air emission inventories using earth observation data. Culham: AEA Technology. Final Report. AEATyENVyRy0693.Google Scholar
  32. Hellenic Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works (2007). Air Pollution in Athens. Annual report for 2006.Google Scholar
  33. Hess, M., Koepke, P., & Schult, I. (1998). Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79, 831–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. HNMS (2010). Hellenic National Meteorological Service database on climatology. Available at: http://www.hnms.gr/hnms/english/climatology/. Accessed 19 November 2010.
  35. Karl, M., Guenther, A., Koble, R., Leip, A., & Seufert, G. (2009). A new European plant-specific emission inventory of biogenic volatile organic compounds for use in atmospheric transport models. Biogeosciences, 6(6), 1059–1087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Korcz, M., Fudala, J., & Klis, C. (2009). Estimation of wind blown dust emissions in Europe and its vicinity. Atmospheric Environment, 43(7), 1410–1420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kounadi, O. (2009). Assessing the quality of OpenStreetMap data. M.Sc. dissertation, Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College of LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Lavender, K. A. (1999). Marine exhaust emissions, quantification study—Mediterranean Sea. Final Report 99/EE/7044. Lloyds Register of Shipping.Google Scholar
  39. Liu, M., & Westphal, D. L. (2001). A study of the sensitivity of simulated mineral dust production to model resolution. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 18099–18112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Maes, J., Vliegen, J., Van de Vel, K., Janssen, S., Deutsch, F., De Ridder, K., et al. (2009). Spatial surrogates for the disaggregation of CORINAIR emission inventories. Atmospheric Environment, 43, 1246–1254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mansell, G., Wolf, M., Gillies, J., Barnard, W., & Omary, M. (2004). Final report: determining fugitive dust emissions from wind erosion. Prepared for Western Governors’ Association (WRAP) by ENVIRON International Corporation.Google Scholar
  42. Markakis, K., Poupkou, A., Melas, D., Tzoumaka, P., & Petrakakis, M. (2010). A computational approach based on GIS technology for the development of an anthropogenic emission inventory of gaseous pollutants in Greece. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 207(1), 157–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ministry of Rural Development and Food (2010). The current situation of Greek Forestry. Available at: www.minagric.gr. Accessed 15 May 2010.
  44. Monahan, E. C., Spiel, D. E., & Davidson, K. L. (1986). A model of marine aerosol generation via whitecaps and wave disruption. In E. C. Monahan & G. Mac Niocail (Eds.), Oceanic whitecaps (pp. 167–174). Norwell: Reidel D.Google Scholar
  45. Openstreetmap data (2009). Available at: www.openstreetmap.org. Accessed 10 February 2010.
  46. Park, S., & In, H. (2003). Parameterization of dust emission for the simulation of the yellow sand (Asian dust) event observed in March 2002 in Korea. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(D19), 4618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pierce, T., Lamb, B., & van Meter, A. (1990). Development of a biogenic emissions inventory system for regional scale air pollution models. Proceedings of the 83rd Air and Waste Manangement Association Annual Meeting.Google Scholar
  48. Placet, M., Mann, C. O., Gilbert, R. O., & Niefer, M. J. (2000). Emissions of ozone precursors from stationary sources: a critical review. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 2183–2204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Population density disaggregated with Corine land cover 2000 (2009). Ispra: European Commission-DG JRC. Available at: http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/dataservice. Accessed 11 February 2010.
  50. Poupkou, A., Symeonidis, P., Ziomas, I., Melas, D., & Markakis, K. (2007). A spatially and temporally disaggregated anthropogenic emission inventory in the southern Balkan region. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 185(1–4), 335–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Poupkou, A., Symeonidis, P., Lisaridis, I., Melas, D., Ziomas, I., Yay, O. D., et al. (2008). Effects of anthropogenic emission sources on maximum ozone concentrations over Greece. Atmospheric Research, 89(4), 374–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Simeonidis, P., Sanida, G., Ziomas, I., & Kourtidis, K. (1999). An estimation of the spatial and temporal distribution of biogenic non-methane hydrocarbon emissions in Greece. Atmospheric Environment, 33, 3791–3801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Singh, H. B. (1995). Composition, chemistry, and climate of the atmosphere. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  54. Smith, M. H., Park, P. M., & Consterdine, I. E. (1993). Marine aerosol concentration and estimated fluxes over seas. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 119, 809–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Smolik, J., Zdimal, V., Schwarz, J., Lazaridis, M., Havranek, V., Eleftheriadis, K., et al. (2003). Size resolved mass concentration and elemental composition of atmospheric aerosols over the eastern Mediterranean. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 3, 2207–2216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sotiropoulou, R. E. P., Tagaris, E., & Pilinis, C. (2004). An estimation of the spatial distribution of agricultural ammonia emissions in the Greater Athens Area. The Science of the Total Environment, 318, 159–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Spyridaki, A., Aleksandropoulou, V., Latos, M., Flatoy, F., Svendby, T. M., & Lazaridis, M. (2007). Contribution of natural emissions to ambient aerosol concentration levels in the eastern Mediterranean. Abstracts of the European Aerosol Conference 2007, Salzburg.Google Scholar
  58. Symeonidis, P., Ziomas, I., & Proyou, A. (2004). Development of an emission inventory system from transport in Greece. Environmental Modelling and Software, 19(4), 413–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Symeonidis, P., Poupkou, A., Gkantou, A., Melas, D., Yay, D., Pouspourika, E., et al. (2008). Development of a computational system for estimating biogenic NMVOCs emissions based on GIS technology. Atmospheric Environment, 42(8), 1777–1789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tsyro, S. (2002). First estimates of the effect of aerosol dynamics in the calculation of PM10 and PM2.5. EMEP MSC-W Note 4/02. The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway.Google Scholar
  61. EPA, U. S. (1985). Compilation of air pollution emission factors, AP-42. Research Triangle Park: US Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  62. Westphal, D. L., Toon, O. B., & Carlson, T. N. (1987). A two-dimensional numerical investigation of the dynamics and microphysical of Saharan dust storms. Journal of Geophysical Research, 92, 3027–3049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Winiwarter, W., Ekstrand, S., & Johansson, D. (2000). IMPRESAREO—Improving the Spatial Resolution of Air Emission Inventories Using Earth Observation Data, WP 4000—Evaluation, Validation and Refinement of Spatially Resolved NOx Inventories. WW4 y1200y001y1.3, Seibersdorf Research Report, OEFZS—S-0080, Seibersdorf. pp. 23.Google Scholar
  64. Winiwarter, W., Vlachogiannis, D., Gounaris, N., Bartzis, J., Ekstrand, S., Tamponi, M., Maffeis, G., Licotti, C., Dore, C., & Hayman, G. (2001). Final Method Evaluation: Development of Spatially Resolved Emission Inventories for Milan and Athens. WP8000 of the EC research project IMPRESAREO. ARC Seibersdorf research Report, ARC-S-0154. pp. 60.Google Scholar
  65. Winiwarter, W., Kuhlbusch, T. A. J., Viana, M., & Hitzenberger, R. (2009). Quality considerations of European PM emission inventories. Atmospheric Environment, 43(25), 3819–3828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yay, O.D., Poupkou, A., Symeonidis, P., Gkantou, A., Melas, D., & Döğeroğlu, T. (2005). Biogenic Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Turkey. Proceeding of the Third International Symposium on Air Quality Management at Urban, regional and Global Scales.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victoria Aleksandropoulou
    • 1
  • Kjetil Torseth
    • 2
  • M. Lazaridis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringTechnical University of CreteChaniaGreece
  2. 2.Norwegian Institute for Air ResearchKjellerNorway

Personalised recommendations