Occurrence of Azoxystrobin, Propiconazole, and Selected Other Fungicides in US Streams, 2005–2006
- 798 Downloads
Fungicides are used to prevent foliar diseases on a wide range of vegetable, field, fruit, and ornamental crops. They are generally more effective as protective rather than curative treatments, and hence tend to be applied before infections take place. Less than 1% of US soybeans were treated with a fungicide in 2002 but by 2006, 4% were treated. Like other pesticides, fungicides can move-off of fields after application and subsequently contaminate surface water, groundwater, and associated sediments. Due to the constant pressure from fungal diseases such as the recent Asian soybean rust outbreak, and the always-present desire to increase crop yields, there is the potential for a significant increase in the amount of fungicides used on US farms. Increased fungicide use could lead to increased environmental concentrations of these compounds. This study documents the occurrence of fungicides in select US streams soon after the first documentation of soybean rust in the US and prior to the corresponding increase in fungicide use to treat this problem. Water samples were collected from 29 streams in 13 states in 2005 and/or 2006, and analyzed for 12 target fungicides. Nine of the 12 fungicides were detected in at least one stream sample and at least one fungicide was detected in 20 of 29 streams. At least one fungicide was detected in 56% of the 103 samples, as many as five fungicides were detected in an individual sample, and mixtures of fungicides were common. Azoxystrobin was detected most frequently (45% of 103 samples) followed by metalaxyl (27%), propiconazole (17%), myclobutanil (9%), and tebuconazole (6%). Fungicide detections ranged from 0.002 to 1.15 μg/L. There was indication of a seasonal pattern to fungicide occurrence, with detections more common and concentrations higher in late summer and early fall than in spring. At a few sites, fungicides were detected in all samples collected suggesting the potential for season-long occurrence in some streams. Fungicide occurrence appears to be related to fungicide use in the associated drainage basins; however, current use information is generally lacking and more detailed occurrence data are needed to accurately quantify such a relation. Maximum concentrations of fungicides were typically one or more orders of magnitude less than current toxicity estimates for freshwater aquatic organisms or humans; however, gaps in current toxicological understandings of the effects of fungicides in the environment limit these interpretations.
KeywordsFungicide Soybean rust Toxicity Water quality
This study was supported by the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program and conducted with the logistical support of USGS Water Science Centers in Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, and South Carolina. The authors would especially like to acknowledge USGS personnel who collected samples: Richard Coupe, Angela Crain, David Dupre, James Fallon, Jeffery Frey, Thomas Harris, Brian Hughes, Steve Kalkhoff, Michael Woodside, and Ron Zelt. The use of trade names or product names in this report does not constitute endorsement or recommendation by the USGS.
- Battaglin, W. A., & Fairchild, J. (2002). Potential toxicity of pesticides measured in midwestern streams to aquatic organisms. Water Science and Technology, 45(9), 95–102.Google Scholar
- Battaglin, W. A., Kuivila, K. M., Winton, K., & Meyer, M. T. (2008). Occurrence of chlorothalonil, its transformation products, and selected other pesticides in Texas and Oklahoma streams, 2003–2004. US Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008–5016, 9 pGoogle Scholar
- Belden, J. B., Gilliom, R. J., Martin, J. D., II, & Lydy, M. J. (2007). Relative toxicity and occurrence of pesticide mixtures in streams draining agricultural watersheds dominated by corn and soybean production. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 3(1), 90–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Birge, W. J., Westerman, A. G., & Spromberg, J. A. (2000). Comparative toxicology and risk assessment of amphibians. In D. Sparling, G. Linder, & C. Bishop (Eds.), Ecotoxicology of amphibians and reptiles (pp. 727–791). Florida: SETAC Press.Google Scholar
- Bradley, K. W., & Sweets, L. E. (2008). Influence of glyphosate and fungicide coapplications on weed control, spray penetration, soybean response, and yield in glyphosate-resistant soybean. Argonomy Journal, 100, 1360–1365.Google Scholar
- Brent, K. J., & Hollomon, D. W. (1998). Fungicide resistance: The assessment of risk. FRAC Monograph No. 2, Global Crop Protection Federation, Brussels, Belgium, 49 p.Google Scholar
- Childress, C. J., Foreman, W. T., Connor, B. F., & Maloney, T. J. (1999). New reporting procedures based on long-term method detection levels and some considerations for interpretations of water-quality data provided by the US Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 99–193, 19 p.Google Scholar
- Dorrance, A. E., Draper, M. A., & Hershman, D. E. (2005). Using foliar fungicides to manage soybean rust. Land Grant Universities Cooperating, Media Distributions, Ohio State University, 52 p.Google Scholar
- Focazio, M. J., Kolpin, D. W., Barnes, K. K., Furlong, E. T., Meyer, M. T., Zaugg, S. D., et al. (2008). A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States—II) Untreated drinking water sources. The Science of the Total Environment, 402, 201–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gianessi, L., & Reigner, N. (2006). Pesticide use in US crop production 2002—With comparison to 1992 & 1997. Washington, D.C., CropLife Foundation. Available at http://www.croplifefoundation.org/cpri_npud2002.htm. Accessed on September 2008
- Lichtwardt, R. W., Cafaro, M. J., & White, M. M. (2001). The Trichomycetes: Fungal associates of arthropods. Available at http://www.nhm.ku.edu/∼fungi/Monograph/Text/Mono.html. Accessed on October 2009.
- Livingston, M., Johansson, R., Daberkow, S., Roberts, M., Ash, M., & Breneman, V. (2004). Economic and policy implications of wind-borne entry of Asian soybean rust into the United States. US Department of Agriculture Electronic Outlook Report OCS-04D-02, 22 p.Google Scholar
- Meisterpro. (2007). Crop protection handbook 2007. Meister Media Worldwide, Willoughby, OH, not paginated.Google Scholar
- Ortiz-Ribbing, L. M., Roskamp, G. K., & Roegge, M. D. (2008). Prophylactic foliar fungicide and insecticide applications and their impact on soybean yield components. Phytopathology, 98(6), S117.Google Scholar
- Plotkin, S., Bagdon, J. K., & Hesketh, E. S. (2009a). Fish toxicity threshold database. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service and University of Massachusetts Extension, Amherst, MA, not paginated.Google Scholar
- Plotkin, S., Bagdon, J. K., & Hesketh, E. S. (2009b). Human drinking water toxicity threshold database. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service and University of Massachusetts Extension, Amherst, MA, not paginated.Google Scholar
- Sandstrom, M. W., Stroppel, M. E., Foreman, W. T., & Schroeder, M. P. (2001). Methods of analysis by the US Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory—Determination of moderate-use pesticides and selected degradates in water by C-18 solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4098, 70 p.Google Scholar
- Scribner, E. A., Thurman, E. M., Goolsby, D. A., Meyer, M. T., Battaglin, W. A., & Kolpin, D. W. (2005). Summary of significant results from studies of triazine herbicides and their degradation products in surface water, ground water, and precipitation in the Midwestern United States during the 1990s. US Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5094, 27 p.Google Scholar
- Scribner, E. A., Orlando, J. L., Battaglin, W. A., Sandstrom, M. W., Kuivila, K. M., & Meyer, M. T. (2006). Results of analyses of the fungicide chlorothalonil, its degradation products, and other selected pesticides at 22 surface-water sites in five southern States, 2003–2004. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1207, 59 p.Google Scholar
- Sconyers, L. E., Kemerait, R. C., Brock, J., Phillips, D. V., Jost, P. H., Sikora, E. J., et al. (2006). Asian soybean rust development in 2005: a perspective from the Southeastern United States. APSnet Feature Story, January 2006.Google Scholar
- Shelton, L. (1994). Field guide for collection and processing stream-water samples for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 94–455, 50 p.Google Scholar
- Syngenta FarmAssist. (2009). Syngenta Quilt Fungicide. Available at http://www.quiltcorn.com/. Accessed on January 2009
- Tenuta, A., Hershman, D. E., Draper, M. A., & Dorrance, A. E. (2007). Fungicide basics. In A. E. Dorrance, M. A. Draper & D. E. Hershman (Eds.), Using foliar fungicides to manage soybean rust. Ohio State University. Available at: http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/SoyRust/. Accessed on March 12, 2009.
- US Department of Agriculture. (2004). Strategic plan to minimize the impact of the introduction and establishment of soybean rust on soybean production in the United States. US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, 31 p.Google Scholar
- US Department of Agriculture (2007). Soybean rust information site. US Department of Agriculture. Accessed 10/2007 at http://sbr.ipmpipe.org/cgi-bin/sbr/public.cgi.
- US Department of Agriculture (2009a). Agricultural baseline projections: US Crops, 2009–2018. US Department of Agriculture. Available at http://www.usda.gov/briefing/Baseline/crops.htm/. Accessed on June 2009
- US Department of Agriculture. (2009b). Agricultural chemical use database. National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). Available at http://www.pestmanagement.info/nass/. Accessed 6/2009.
- US Environmental Protection Agency. (1994). Reregistration eligibility decision (RED) for metalaxyl. US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, EPA 738-R-94-017, 335 p.Google Scholar
- US Environmental Protection Agency. (1997). Pesticide fact sheet—azoxystrobin. US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, 23 p.Google Scholar
- US Environmental Protection Agency. (1999). R.E.D. facts—chlorothalonil. US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, 14 p.Google Scholar
- US Environmental Protection Agency. (2003). Pesticide fact sheet—boscalid. US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, 18 p.Google Scholar
- US Environmental Protection Agency. (2005). Pesticide fact sheet—tetraconazole. US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, 36 p.Google Scholar
- US Environmental Protection Agency. (2006a). Pesticide fact sheet—metconazole. US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, 19 p.Google Scholar
- US Environmental Protection Agency. (2006b). Reregistration eligibility decision (RED) for propiconazole. US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances, EPA 738R-06-027, 153 p.Google Scholar
- US Environmental Protection Agency. (2007). Chemicals registered for the treatment of soybean rust. Available at http://www.epa.gov/oppfead1/cb/csb_page/updates/soybean_rust.htm. Accessed on November 2007.
- US Environmental Protection Agency. (2009a). ECOTOX database. Available at http://cfpub.epa.gov/ecotox/. Accessed on January 2009.
- US Environmental Protection Agency. (2009b), Letter from Universities regarding the strobilurin, pyraclostrobin (Headline), supplemental Label, US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs. Available at http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/regulating/headline-letter.pdf. Accessed on October 2009.
- US Government Accountability Office (2006). Agriculture production: USDA needs to build on 2005 experience to minimize the effects of Asian soybean rust in the future. GAO-06-337, Washington, D.C., 57 p.Google Scholar
- West Virginia Department of Agriculture. (2009). Plant Industries Division, Soybeans: fungicides approved (section 18) or registered (section 3) for soybean rust management. Available at http://sites.google.com/site/wvdaplantpath/soybean-rust/sbr-fungicides/. Accessed on September 2009.
- Wilde, F. D., Radke, D., Gibs, J., & Iwatsubo, R., (Eds.) (1999). National field manual for the collection of water quality data. US Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 9, chap. A2–A5.Google Scholar
- Yang, X. B., Navi, S. S., & Shriver, J. (2008). Use of fungicides to control soybean foliar diseases: a 6-year summary. Integrated Crop Management News, Iowa State University. Available at http://www.extension.iastate.edu/CropNews/2008/1117yang.htm. Accessed on January 2009.
- Zaugg, S. D., Sandstrom, M. W. Smith, S. G., & Fehlberg, K. M. (1995). Methods of analysis by the US Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory—Determination of pesticides in water by C-18 solid-phase extraction and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-181, 60 p.Google Scholar