Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 215, Issue 1–4, pp 595–607 | Cite as

A Comparison Between Field Applications of Nano-, Micro-, and Millimetric Zero-Valent Iron for the Remediation of Contaminated Aquifers

  • Silvia CombaEmail author
  • Antonio Di Molfetta
  • Rajandrea Sethi


In the last 10 years, the number of field applications of zero-valent iron differing from permeable reactive barrier has grown rapidly and at present are 112. This study analyzes and compares such field applications. By using statistical analysis, especially ANOVA and principal component analysis, this study shows that chlorinated solvent contamination can be treated efficiently by using zero-valent iron material singly or associated with other technologies. In the analyzed sample of case studies, the association with microbial dechlorination increased significantly the performances of nanoscale iron. This is likely due to the synergistic effect between the two processes. Millimetric iron was always used in association with source zone containment; therefore, it is not possible to distinguish the contributions of the two techniques. The comparison also shows that catalyst addition seems to not dramatically improve treatment efficiency and that such improvement is not statistically significant. Finally, the injection technology is correlated to the type of iron and to the soil permeability.


Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) Micrometric iron Millimetric iron Case studies Field application Injection 



This work was conducted under the CIPE-C30 project funded by Regione Piemonte (Italy) and partially supported by the Lagrange Grant from Fondazione C.R.T. (Italy).

Supplementary material

11270_2010_502_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (197 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 197 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silvia Comba
    • 1
    Email author
  • Antonio Di Molfetta
    • 1
  • Rajandrea Sethi
    • 1
  1. 1.DITAG—Dipartimento del Territorio, dell’Ambiente e delle GeotecnologiePolitecnico di TorinoTurinItaly

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