Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 212, Issue 1–4, pp 281–297 | Cite as

Effects of Vegetation, Season and Temperature on the Removal of Pollutants in Experimental Floating Treatment Wetlands

  • Annelies M. K. Van de Moortel
  • Erik Meers
  • Niels De Pauw
  • Filip M. G. Tack
Article

Abstract

The research and interest towards the use of constructed floating wetlands for (waste)water treatment is emerging as more treatment opportunities are marked out, and the technique is applied more often. To evaluate the effect of a floating macrophyte mat and the influence of temperature and season on physico-chemical changes and removal, two constructed floating wetlands (CFWs), including a floating macrophyte mat, and a control, without emergent vegetation, were built. Raw domestic wastewater from a wastewater treatment plant was added on day 0. Removal of total nitrogen, NH4–N, NO3–N, P, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon and heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) was studied during 17 batch-fed testing periods with a retention time of 11 days (February–March 2007 and August 2007–September 2008). In general, the CFWs performed better than the control. Average removal efficiencies for NH4–N, total nitrogen, P and COD were respectively 35%, 42%, 22% and 53% for the CFWs, and 3%, 15%, 6% and 33% for the control. The pH was significantly lower in the CFWs (7.08 ± 0.21) than in the control (7.48 ± 0.26) after 11 days. The removal efficiencies of NH4–N, total nitrogen and COD were significantly higher in the CFWs as the presence of the floating macrophyte mat influenced positively their removal. Total nitrogen, NH4–N and P removal was significantly influenced by temperature with the highest removal between 5°C and 15°C. At lower and higher temperatures, removal relapsed. In general, temperature seemed to be the steering factor rather than season. The presence of the floating macrophyte mat restrained the increase of the water temperature when air temperature was >15°C. Although the mat hampered oxygen diffusion from the air towards the water column, the redox potential measured in the rootmat was higher than the value obtained in the control at the same depth, indicating that the release of oxygen from the roots could stimulate oxygen consuming reactions within the root mat, and root oxygen release was higher than oxygen diffusion from the air.

Keywords

Wastewater treatment Combined sewer overflow Nitrogen Phosphorous COD Heavy metals 

References

  1. Akratos, C. S., & Tsihrintzis, V. A. (2007). Effect of temperature, HRT, vegetation and porous media on removal efficiency of pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Ecological Engineering, 29, 173–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, W. C., Hook, P. B., Biederman, J. A., & Stein, O. R. (2002). Temperature and wetland plant species effects on wastewater treatment and root zone oxidation. Journal of Environmental Quality, 31, 1010–1016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armstrong, W., Armstrong, J., & Beckett, P. M. (1990). Measurement and modelling of oxygen release from roots of Phragmites australis. In P. F. Cooper & B. C. Findlater (Eds.), Constructed wetlands in water pollution control (pp. 41–45). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  4. Baptista, J. (2003). Microbial communities in subsurface flow wetlands. 1st International Seminar on the use of aquatic macrophytes for wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands, 8–10 May 2003, Lisbon, Portugal, 265–276Google Scholar
  5. Baquerizo, B., Maestre, J. P., Machado, V. C., Gamisans, X., & Gabriel, D. (2002). Long-term ammonia removal in a coconut fiber-packed biofilter: Analysis of N fractionation and reactor performance under steady-state and transient conditions. Water Research, 43, 2293–2301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boutwell, J. E. (2002). Water quality and plant growth evaluations of the floating islands in Las Vegas Bay, Lake Mead, Nevada. Technical Memorandum No. 8220-03-09, 69 p.Google Scholar
  7. Brix, H. (1997). Do macrophytes play a role in constructed treatment wetlands? Water Science and Technology, 35(5), 11–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coleman, J., Hench, K., Garbutt, K., Sexstone, A., Bissonnette, G., & Skousen, J. (2001). Treatment of domestic wastewater by three plant species in constructed wetlands. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 128, 283–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. DeBusk, T., & Hunt, P.G. (2005). Use of floating artificial wetlands for denitrification. Paper presented at ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meeting, November 6–10, 2005, Salt Lake City, UT.Google Scholar
  10. Del Bubba, M., Lepri, L., Griffini, O., & Tabani, F. (2000). Nitrogen removal in a pilot-scale subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetland. Annali di Chimica, 90, 513–524.Google Scholar
  11. Dusek, J., Picek, T., & Cizkova, H. (2008). Redox potential dynamics in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland for wastewater treatment: Diel, seasonal and spatial fluctuations. Ecological Engineering, 34, 223–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eaton, A. D., Clesceri, L. S., & Greenberg, A. E. (1995). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (p. 1325). Washington: American Health Organisation.Google Scholar
  13. Garbett, P. (2005). An investigation into the application of floating reedbed and barley straw techniques for the remediation of eutrophic waters. Journal of the Chartered Institution Water and Environmental Management, 19(3), 174–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gonzalez, J. F., de Miguel Beascoechea, E., de Miguel Muñoz, J., & Curt, M. D. (2005). Manual de fitodepuración. Filtros de macrofitas en floatación. End report of the LIFE project Nuevos filtros verdes de macrofitas en floatción para la cuence mediterránea, 143 p. http://www.fundacionglobalnature.org/macrophytes/Manual%20sobre%20fitodepuracion.htm. Consulted May 2009.
  15. Gray, I. (2005). Floating reed beds for tertiary/storm sewage treatment. Cutting Edge Wetland Technology. 11 May, 2005, Derby, UK.Google Scholar
  16. Headley, T. R., & Tanner, C. C. (2006). Application of CFWs for enhanced stormwater treatment: A review. Auckland Regional Council, Technical Publication No 324, p. 98.Google Scholar
  17. Headley, T. R., & Tanner, C. C. (2008). Floating treatment wetlands for the removal of fine particulates, copper and zinc from stormwater. 11th International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control, 1–7 November 2008, Indore, India (cd-rom).Google Scholar
  18. Hill, D. T., & Payton, J. D. (2000). Effect of plant fill ratio on water temperature in constructed wetlands. Bioresource Technology, 71, 283–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hogg, E. H., & Wein, R. W. (1988a). Seasonal change in gas content and buoyancy of floating Typha mats. J Ecol, 76(4), 1055–1068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hogg, E. H., & Wein, R. W. (1988b). The contribution of Typha components to floating mat buoyancy. Ecology, 69(4), 1025–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huang, Y., Ortiz, L., Aguirre, P., Garcia, J., Mujeriego, R., & Bayona, J. M. (2005). Effect of design parameters in horizontal flow constructed wetland on the behaviour of volatile fatty acids and volatile alkylsulfides. Chemosphere, 59, 769–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hubbard, R. K., Gascho, G. J., & Newton, G. L. (2004). Use of floating vegetation to remove nutrients from swine manure wastewater. Transactions of the ASAE, 47(6), 1963–1972.Google Scholar
  23. Iamchaturapatr, J., Yi, S. W., & Rhee, J. S. (2007). Nutrient removals by 21 aquatic plants for vertical free surface-flow (VFS) constructed wetland. Ecological Engineering, 29, 287–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kadlec, R. H. (1998). Wetland utilization for management of community wastewater, 1997. Operations Summary. Report to Michigan Department Natural Resources. Houghton Lake Treatment Wetland Project.Google Scholar
  25. Kadlec, R. H. (1999). Chemical, physical and biological cycles in treatment wetlands. Water Science and Technology, 40(3), 37–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kadlec, R. H., & Knight, R. L. (1996). Treatment wetlands (p. 928). Boca Raton: Lewis.Google Scholar
  27. Kadlec, R. H., & Reddy, K. R. (2001). Temperature effects in treatment wetlands. Water Environment Research, 73, 543–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kuschk, P., Wiessner, A., Kappelmeyer, U., Weissbrodt, E., Kastner, M., & Stottmeister, U. (2003). Annual cycle of nitrogen removal by a pilot-scale subsurface horizontal flow in a constructed wetland under moderate climate. Water Research, 37, 4236–4242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kyambadde, J., Kansiime, F., Gumaelius, L., & Dalhammar, G. (2004). A comparative study of Cyperus papyrus and Miscanthidium violaceum-based constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in a tropical climate. Water Research, 38(2), 475–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Leitão, R. C., van Haandel, A. C., Zeeman, G., & Lettinga, G. (2006). The effects of operational and environmental variations on anaerobic wastewater treatment systems: A review. Bioresource Technology, 97, 1105–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Maehlum, T., & Stalnacke, P. (1999). Removal efficiency of three cold-climate constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater: Effects of temperature, seasons, loading rates and input concentrations. Water Science and Technology, 40(3), 273–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mander, U., Kuusemets, V., Oovel, M., Ihme, R., Sevola, P., & Pieterse, A. (2000). Experimentally constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in Estonia. Journal of Environmental Science Health Part A, 35, 1389–1401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mitsch, W. J., & Gosselink, J. G. (1993). Wetlands (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  34. Nakamura, K., & Shimatani, Y. (1997). Water purification and environmental enhancement by the floating wetland. In: Proceedings Asia WATERQUAL ’97. May 20–23 1997 (pp. 888–895). Seoul, Korea.Google Scholar
  35. Oshima, H., Karasawa, K., & Nakamura, K. (2001). Water purification experiment by artificial floating island. Proceedings JSWE, 35, 146.Google Scholar
  36. Picard, C. R., Fraser, L. H., & Steer, D. (2005). The interacting effects of temperature and plant community type on nutrient removal in wetland microcosms. Bioresource Technology, 96, 1039–1047.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Revitt, D. M., Shutes, R. B. E., Llewellyn, N. R., & Worrall, P. (1997). Experimental reed bed systems for the treatment or airport runoff. Water Science and Technology, 36(8–9), 385–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Riley, K. A., Stein, O. R., & Hook, P. B. (2005). Ammonium removal in constructed wetland microcosms as influenced by season and organic carbon load. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, 40, 1109–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Smith, M. P., & Kalin, M. (2000). Floating wetland vegetation covers for suspended solids removal. In: Proceedings of the Quebec 2000: Millennium Wetland Event, Quebec City, Quebec, August 6–12, p. 244.Google Scholar
  40. Spieles, D. J., & Mitsch, W. J. (2000). The effects of season and hydrologic and chemical loading on nitrate retention in constructed wetlands: A comparison of low and high nutrient riverine systems. Ecological Engineering, 14, 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Stein, O. R., & Hook, P. B. (2005). Temperature, plants and oxygen: How does season affect constructed wetland performance? Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, 40, 1331–1342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sundaravadivel, M., & Vigneswaran, S. (2001). Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 31, 351–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tanner, C. C., Clayton, J. S., & Upsdell, M. P. (1995). Effect of loading rate and planting on treatment of dairy farm wastewaters in constructed wetlands—II. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. Water Research, 29(1), 27–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Todd, J., Brown, E. J. G., & Wells, E. (2003). Ecological design applied. Ecological Engineering, 20, 421–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Verhoeven, J. T. A., & Meuleman, A. F. M. (1999). Wetlands for wastewater treatment: Opportunities and limitations. Ecological Engineering, 12, 5–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Vymazal, J. (2002). The use of subsurface constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in the Czech Republic: 10 years experience. Ecological Engineering, 18, 633–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vymazal, J. (2007). Removal of nutrients in various types of constructed wetlands. Science of the Total Environment, 380(1–3), 48–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Walhugala, A. G., Suzuki, T., & Kurihara, Y. (1987). Removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and COD from wastewater using a sand filtration system with Phragmites australis. Water Research, 21, 1217–1224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Werker, A. G., Dougherty, J. M., McHenry, J. L., & Van Loon, W. A. (2002). Treatment variability for wetland wastewater treatment design in cold climates. Ecological Engineering, 19, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wittgren, H. B., & Maehlum, T. (1997). Wastewater treatment wetlands in cold climates. Water Science and Technology, 35(5), 45–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wong, J. P. K. (2000). Ecological development of witches oak waters: Progress reports 1-7. School of Biological Sciences, University of Birmingham, 2000.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annelies M. K. Van de Moortel
    • 1
  • Erik Meers
    • 1
  • Niels De Pauw
    • 2
  • Filip M. G. Tack
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied EcochemistryGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Applied Ecology and Environmental Biology, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic EcologyGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations