Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 210, Issue 1–4, pp 265–276 | Cite as

How Much Does the Presence of a Competitor Modify the Within-Canopy Distribution of Ozone-Induced Senescence and Visible Injury?



Many natural vegetation species have been shown to be negatively affected by ozone. This study has investigated how the presence of competing species in a community affects two common responses to ozone: visible injury and senescence. Monocultures and mixtures of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne were grown in large containers and were exposed in solardomes to either a rural episodic ozone profile (AOT40 of 12.86 ppm h) or control conditions (AOT40 of 0.02 ppm h) for 12 weeks. The proportion of ozone-injured or senesced leaves was different in the different regions of the canopy. The highest proportions of injured/senesced leaves were in the plant material growing at the edge of the canopy and the upper canopy, with a significantly lower proportion of injured leaves in the inner canopy. The presence of L. perenne increased the proportion of ozone-injured leaves in T. repens at the final harvest, whilst the presence of T. repens decreased the proportion of senesced leaves in L. perenne. In L. perenne, the proportion of injured leaves at the edge and inner canopy decreased significantly when grown in competition, whilst for T. repens the reverse effect occurred in the inner canopy only. Different mechanisms appeared to influence the interaction between response to ozone and competitors in these two species. In L. perenne the response to ozone may have been related to nitrogen supply, whereas in T. repens canopy structure was more important.


Ozone Lolium perenne Trifolium repens Stomatal conductance Canopy Competition 



This work was funded by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Integrating Fund Initiative.


  1. Anderson, C. P., Hogsett, W. E., Plocher, M., Rodecap, K. D., & Lee, E. H. (2001). Blue wild-rye grass competition increases the effect of ozone on ponderosa pine seedlings. Tree Physiology, 21, 319–327.Google Scholar
  2. Ashmore, M. R., Büker, P., Emberson, L. D., Terry, A. C., & Toet, S. (2007). Modelling stomatal ozone flux and deposition to grassland communities across Europe. Environmental Pollution, 146(3), 659–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bassin, S., Kolliker, R., Cretton, C., Bertossa, M., Widmer, F., Bungener, P., et al. (2004). Intra-specific variability of ozone sensitivity in Centaurea jacea L., a potential bioindicator for elevated ozone concentrations. Environmental Pollution, 131(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bender, J., Muntifering, R. B., Lin, J. C., & Weigel, H. J. (2006). Growth and nutritive quality of Poa pratensis and influenced by ozone and competition. Environmental Pollution, 142(1), 109–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergmann, E., Bender, J., & Weigel, H. J. (1999). Ozone threshold doses and exposure–response relationships for the development of ozone injury symptoms in wild plant species. New Phytologist, 144(3), 423–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chappelka, A. H., Neufeld, H. S., Davison, A. W., Somers, G. L., & Renfro, J. R. (2003). Ozone injury on cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata) and crown-beard (Verbesina occidentalis) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Environmental Pollution, 125(1), 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Emberson, L. D., Ashmore, M. R., Cambridge, H. M., Simpson, D., & Tuovinen, J. P. (2000). Modelling stomatal ozone flux across Europe. Environmental Pollution, 109(3), 403–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Emberson, L. D., Ashmore, M. R., Murray, F., Kuylenstierna, J. C. I., Percy, K. E., Izuta, T., et al. (2001). Impacts of air pollutants on vegetation in developing countries. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 130(1-4), 107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Finkelstein, P. L., Davison, A. W., Neufeld, H. S., Meyers, T. P., & Chappelka, A. H. (2004). Sub-canopy deposition of ozone in a stand of cutleaf coneflower. Environmental Pollution, 131(2), 295–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fumagalli, I., Mignanego, L., & Mills, G. (2003). Ozone biomonitoring with clover clones: yield loss and carryover effect under high ambient ozone levels in northern Italy. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 95(1), 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goodman, P. J. (1988). Nitrogen fixation, transfer and turnover in upland and lowland grass-clover swards, using 15N isotope dilution. Plant and Soil, 112(2), 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hayes, F., Mills, G., Harmens, H., & Norris, D. (2007). Evidence of widespread ozone damage to vegetation in Europe (1990–2006). Cambridgeshire, UK. ISBN: 978-0-9557672-1-0.Google Scholar
  13. Hayes, F., Mills, G., & Ashmore, M. (2009). Effects of ozone on inter- and intra-species competition and photosynthesis in mesocosms of Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens. Environmental Pollution, 157(1), 208–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jäggi, M., Ammann, C., Neftel, A., & Fuhrer, J. (2006). Environmental control of profiles of ozone concentration in a grassland canopy. Atmospheric Environment, 40(28), 5496–5507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kersteins, G., & Lendzian, K. J. (1989). Interactions between ozone and plant cuticles, I. Ozone deposition and permeability. New Phytologist, 112, 13–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lantinga, E. A., Nassiri, M., & Kropff, M. J. (1999). Modelling and measuring vertical light absorbtion within grass-clover mixtures. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 96, 71–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lichtenthaler, H. K., & Wellburn, A. R. (1983). Determinations of total carotenoids and chlorophylls a and b of leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions, 603, 591–592.Google Scholar
  18. Mills, G., Hayes, F., Wilkinson, S., & Davies, W. (2009). Chronic exposure to increasing background ozone impairs stomatal functioning in grassland species. Global Change Biology, 15(6), 1522–1533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Novak, K., Skelly, J. M., Schaub, M., Krauchi, N., Hug, C., Landolt, W., et al. (2003). Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland. Environmental Pollution, 125(1), 41–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nussbaum, S., Geissmann, M., & Fuhrer, J. (1995). Ozone exposure-response relationships for mixtures of perennial ryegrass and white clover depend on ozone exposure patterns. Atmospheric Environment, 29(9), 989–995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Paoletti, E. (2005). Ozone slows stomatal response to light and leaf wounding in a Mediterranean evergreen broadleaf, Arbutus unedo. Environmental Pollution, 134, 439–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pell, E. J., Schlagnhaufer, C. D., & Arteca, R. N. (1997). Ozone-induced oxidative stress: Mechanisms of action and reaction. Physiologia Plantarum, 100(2), 264–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sanz, J., Muntifering, R. B., Bermejo, V., Gimeno, B. S., & Elvira, S. (2005). Ozone and increased nitrogen supply effects on the yield and nutritive quality of Trifolium subterraneum. Atmospheric Environment, 39(32), 5899–5907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shulski, M. D., Walter-Shea, E. A., Hubbard, K. G., Yuen, G. Y., & Horst, G. (2004). Penetration of photosynthetically active and ultraviolet radiation into alfalfa and tall fescue canopies. Agronomy Journal, 96(6), 1562–1571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Simpson, D., Tuovinen, J. P., Emberson, L., & Ashmore, M. R. (2003). Characteristics of an ozone deposition module II: Sensitivity analysis. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 143(1–4), 123–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sincik, M., & Acikgoz, E. (2007). Effects of white clover inclusion on turf characteristics, nitrogen fixation, and nitrogen transfer from white clover to grass species in turf mixtures. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 38(13–14), 1861–1877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sitch, S., Cox, P. M., Collins, W. J., & Huntingford, C. (2007). Indirect radiative forcing of climate change through ozone effects on the land-carbon sink. Nature, 448(7155), 791–U4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tonneijck, A. E. G., Franzaring, J., Brouwer, G., Metselaar, K., & Dueck, T. A. (2004). Does interspecific competition alter effects of early season ozone exposure on plants from wet grasslands? Results of a three-year experiment in open-top chambers. Environmental Pollution, 131(2), 205–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Utiyama, M., Fukuyama, T., Maruo, Y. Y., Ichino, T., Izumi, K., Hara, H., et al. (2004). Formation and deposition of ozone in a red pine forest. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 151(1–4), 53–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Ecology and HydrologyEnvironment Centre WalesBangorUK
  2. 2.Environment DepartmentUniversity of YorkYorkUK

Personalised recommendations