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Ecological Risk, Mass Loading, and Occurrence of Nonylphenol (NP), NP Mono-, and Diethoxylate in Kaoping River and its Tributaries, Taiwan


Biochemically, nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPnEOs) and its breakdown products nonylphenol (NP), NP monoethoxylate (NP1EO), and NP diethoxylate (NP2EO) are considered endocrine disrupting compounds. These NPnEOs have been detected in aquatic environments and are of concern. NP, NP1EO, and NP2EO were detected in water samples collected from the main watercourse and polluted tributaries of Kaoping River, Taiwan. Concentrations were below the detection limit (<LOD) to 310 μg/l for NP, from <LOD to 27.2 μg/l for NP1EO, and from <LOD to 27.5 μg/l for NP2EO. It was found that concentrations of the three compounds in a low flow period were significantly greater than in the high flow period due to the low dilution effect. The risk to aquatic organisms by NP, NP1EO, and NP2EO was expressed as hazard quotient and hazard index and simulated with the Monte Carlo method. Results from this study suggested an inadequately treated domestic wastewater caused high concentrations of NP, NP1EO, and NP2EO and a high risk to aquatic organisms.

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This research was supported by the National Science Council, Taiwan, and Grant Number NSC 93-2211-E-020-012.

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Correspondence to Ting-Chien Chen.

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Chen, T., Yeh, Y. Ecological Risk, Mass Loading, and Occurrence of Nonylphenol (NP), NP Mono-, and Diethoxylate in Kaoping River and its Tributaries, Taiwan. Water Air Soil Pollut 208, 209–220 (2010).

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  • Ecological risk
  • Mass loading
  • Monte Carlo simulation
  • Nonylphenol (NP)
  • NP monoethoxylate (NP1EO)
  • NP diethoxylate (NP2EO)