Advertisement

Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 204, Issue 1–4, pp 363–372 | Cite as

Nutrient Pollution in Laucala Bay, Fiji Islands

  • Sarabjeet Singh
  • W. G. L. Aalbersberg
  • R. J. MorrisonEmail author
Article

Abstract

The Laucala Bay coastal system was investigated from 2003 to 2005 to evaluate the changes in water quality (nutrients) after improvements in sewage effluent quality from Kinoya sewage treatment plant (KSTP), whose output is discharged into the bay. The oxidized nitrogen (NO x –N) values averaged 1.31 µM, but varied from 0.76 to 3.77 µM, and the filterable reactive phosphate or orthophosphate (FRP) averaged 0.77 µM, ranging from 0.24 to 2.37 µM. The mean concentrations of NO x –N and FRP, respectively, were two and ten times higher than concentrations found in unpolluted sites in Fiji. Based on these values and NH3 concentrations from parallel studies, Redfield ratio estimates suggest that primary productivity of the bay is N limited. No significant decrease in concentration of both NO x –N and FRP was found in Laucala Bay waters during the present investigation compared to concentrations found in two previous studies. This indicates that KSTP effluent may be only a minor source of nutrients into the bay, and to protect the Laucala Bay ecosystem from increasing nutrient pollution, there is a need to control nutrient input from other major point and nonpoint sources.

Keywords

Nutrients Pollution Sources Laucala Bay 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Dr. Milika Naqasima-Sobey, University of the South Pacific, for making available unpublished ammonia concentration data.

References

  1. Alongi, D. M. (1996). The dynamics of benthic nutrient pools and fluxes in tropical mangrove forests. Journal of Marine Research, 54, 123–148. doi: 10.1357/0022240963213475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ANZECC. (2000). Australian water quality guidelines for fresh and marine waters. Canberra: Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council.Google Scholar
  3. APHA. (1998). Standard methods of examination of water and wastewater (20th ed.). Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
  4. Bell, P. (1992). Eutrophication and coral reefs: some examples in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Water Research, 26, 553–568. doi: 10.1016/0043-1354(92)90228-V.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boto, K. G. (1992). Nutrients and mangroves. In D. W. Connell & D. W. Hawker (Eds.), Pollution in tropical aquatic systems, (pp. 129–145). Boca Raton: CRC.Google Scholar
  6. Boynton, W. R., & Kemp, W. M. (1984). Nutrient regeneration and oxygen consumption by sediments along an estuarine salinity gradients. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 23, 45–55. doi: 10.3354/meps023045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campbell, L. E., Cock, R. R., & Corris, R. A. (1982). Kinoya sewerage treatment plant—report on receiving water study, p. 91. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Transport and Construction and Caldwell Connell Engineers.Google Scholar
  8. Edinger, E. N., Jompa, J., Limmon, G. V., Widjatmoko, W., & Risk, M. J. (1998). Reef degradation and coral biodiversity in Indonesia: effects of land based pollution, destructive fishing and changes over time. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36, 617–630. doi: 10.1016/S0025-326X(98)00047-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eyre, B. (1993). Nutrients in sediments of a tropical north-eastern Australian estuary, catchment and near shore coastal zone. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 44, 845–866. doi: 10.1071/MF9930845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eyre, B. (1994). Nutrient biogeochemistry in the tropical Moresby estuary system North Queensland, Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 39, 15–31. doi: 10.1006/ecss.1994.1046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ficher, D. R., Jickells, T. D., & Edmunds, H. M. (1992). Algal blooms in high turbidity, result of the conflicting consequences of turbulence of nutrient cycling in a shallow water estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 35, 577–592. doi: 10.1016/S0272-7714(05)80040-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gabric, A. J., & Bell, P. R. F. (1993). Review of effects of non-point nutrient loading on coastal ecosystems. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 44, 261–283. doi: 10.1071/MF9930261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hodgson, G. (1999). A global assessment of human effects on coral reefs. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 38, 345–355. doi: 10.1016/S0025-326X(99)00002-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Howarth, R., Anderson, D., Cleom, J., Elfring, C., Hopkinson, C., Lapointe, B., et al. (2000). Nutrient pollution of coastal rivers, bays and seas (14 p). Issues in Ecology, Number 7, Ecological Society of America, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  15. Jorgensen, B. B., & Sorensen, J. (1985). Seasonal cycles of O2, NO3, and SO42− reduction in estuarine sediments: the significance of an NO3 reduction maximum in spring. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 24, 65–74. doi: 10.3354/meps024065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Koop, K., Booth, D., Broadbent, A., Brodie, J., Bucher, D., Capone, D., et al. (2001). ENCHORE: the effect of nutrient enrichment on coral reefs. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 91–120. doi: 10.1016/S0025-326X(00)00181-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Larkum, A. W. D., & Koop, K. (1997). ENCHORE, algal productivity and possible paradigm shifts. Proceedings of Eighth International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 881–884.Google Scholar
  18. McCook, L. J. (1999). Mcroalgae, nutrients and phase shift on coral reefs: scientific issues and management consequences for the great barrier reef. Coral Reefs, 18, 357–367. doi: 10.1007/s003380050213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Morrison, R. J., & Naqasima, M. R. (1999). Fiji's Great Astrolabe Lagoon: baseline study and management issues for pristine marine environment. Ocean and Coastal Management, 42, 617–636. doi: 10.1016/S0964-5691(99)00032-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Morrison, R. J., Narayan, S. P., & Gangaiya, P. (2001). Trace metal studies in Laucal Bay, Suva, Fiji. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 397–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mosley, L. M., & Aalbersberg, W. G. L. (2003). Nutrient levels in sea and river water along the coral coast of Viti Levu, Fiji. South Pacific Journal of Natural Science, 21, 35–40.Google Scholar
  22. Naidu, S., Aalbersberg, W. G. L., Brodie, J. E., Fuavao, V. A., Maata, M., Naqasima, M. R., et al. (1991). Water quality studies on selected Pacific lagoons (p. 99). UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 136, UNEP, Nairobi.Google Scholar
  23. Naqasima-Sobey, M. K. (2004). The role of bottom sediments in nitrogen cycling in a tropical lagoon (p. 219). Ph.D. thesis, University of Essex, Colchester.Google Scholar
  24. Nedwell, D. B. (1975). Inorganic nitrogen metabolism in a eutrophicated tropical mangrove estuary. Water Research, 9, 221–231. doi: 10.1016/0043-1354(75)90012-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nedwell, D. B., Jickells, T. D., Trimmer, M., & Sanders, R. (1999). Nutrients in estuaries. Advances in Ecological Research, 29, 43–58. doi: 10.1016/S0065-2504(08)60191-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nedwell, D. B., Dong, L. F., Sage, A., & Underwood, G. J. C. (2002). Variations of nutrients loads to the mainland UK estuaries: correlation with catchment areas, urbanization and coastal eutrophication. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 54, 951–970. doi: 10.1006/ecss.2001.0867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pastorok, R. A., & Bilyard, G. R. (1985). Effect of sewage pollution on coral reef communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 21, 175–189. doi: 10.3354/meps021175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ryther, J. H., & Dunstan, W. M. (1971). Nitrogen, phosphorus, and eutrophication in the coastal marine environment. Science, 171, 1008–10013. doi: 10.1126/science.171.3975.1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tamata, B. R., Lloyd, C. R., & Green, D. (1993). Water quality in the ports of Fiji, 1992 monitoring programme (p. 82). Institute of Applied Sciences Environmental Report No. 67, the University of the South Pacific, Suva.Google Scholar
  30. Thomas, W. H. (1970). On nitrogen deficiency in tropical Pacific oceanic phytoplankton. Limnology and Oceanography, 15, 380–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. UNEP. (2002). A directory of environmentally sound technologies for the integrated management of solid, liquid and hazardous waste for small island developing states (SIDS) in the Pacific region. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme.Google Scholar
  32. UNESCAP. (2000). Integrating environmental considerations into economic policy making: institutional issues. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) Development Paper No. 21 (ST/ESCAP/1990), Bangkok.Google Scholar
  33. Wallis, I., & Chidgey, S. (1995). Report on environmental studies: Kinoya treatment plant and Laucala Bay. Melbourne: Consulting Environmental Engineers.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarabjeet Singh
    • 1
  • W. G. L. Aalbersberg
    • 1
  • R. J. Morrison
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Applied SciencesUniversity of the South PacificSuvaFiji
  2. 2.GeoQuest Research Centre, School of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia

Personalised recommendations