Phosphorus Fractionation in Sediment Cores Collected In 2005 Before and After Onset of an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Bloom in Upper Klamath Lake, OR, USA
We tested the hypothesis that there would be measurable losses of phosphorus (P) from surficial sediments of Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon, if sediments were a source of P during an algal bloom. We compared concentrations of total and forms of P at various depths in cores collected before and after the onset of a large Aphanizomenon flos-aquae bloom. Concentrations of inorganic P were determined in extraction solutions of MgCl2 (1 M, pH 8), citrate-dithionite-bicarbonate, and 1 M HCl. Sediments below 2 cm were dominated by residual P which is defined as total P minus inorganic P. During the study period, data from the top 2-cm of sediment indicated (a) significant decrease in total P concentration, primarily associated with iron oxyhydroxides at one site, and (b) significant increase in total P concentration associated with residual P at a second site. Data from two other sites indicated no net changes in concentrations of total P.
KeywordsPhosphorus fractionation Residual phosphorus Cyanophyte Eutrophic Shallow lake Metals
The authors greatly appreciate the excellent support of the U.S. Geological Survey Klamath Falls Field Office field crew and the helpful suggestions of James Kuwabara and Thomas Kraemer, both from the U.S. Geological Survey.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for part of the project. s.d.g. Any use of trade, product, or firm names in this report is for identification purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government.
- Anderson, L. D., & Delaney, M. L. (1999). Sequential Extraction and Analysis of Phosphorus in Marine Sediments: Streamlining of the SEDEX Procedure. Limnology and Oceanography, 45, 509–515.Google Scholar
- Andersson, G., Granéli, W., & Stenson, J. (1988). The influence of animals on phosphorus cycling in lake ecosystems. Hydrobiologia, 170, 267–284.Google Scholar
- Andrieux-Loyer, F., Philippon, X., Bally, G., Kérouel, R., Youenou, A., & Le Grand, J. (2008). Phosphorus dynamics and bioavailability in sediments of the Penzé Estuary (NW France): in relation to annual P-fluxes and occurrences of Alexandrium Minutum. Biogeochemistry, 88, 213–231. doi: 10.1007/s10533-008-9199-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brunberg, A. -K., Blomqvist, P., & Rydin, E. (2002). Contrasting ontogeny among ephemeral hardwater lakes as revealed by sediment P-fractionation. Archiv fuer Hydrobiologie, 153, 491–502.Google Scholar
- Eilers, J. M., Bernert, J. A., Gubala, C. P., Whiting, M. C., Engstrom, D. R., & Charles, D. F. (1996). Recent paleolimnology of Devils Lake, Oregon. Northwest Science, 70, 13–27.Google Scholar
- Filippelli, G. M., Souch, C., Menounos, B., Slater-Atwater, S., Jull, A. J. T., & Slaymaker, O. (2006). Alpine lake sediment records of the impact of glaciation and climate change on the biogeochemical cycling of soil nutrients. Quaternary Research, 66, 158–166. doi: 10.1016/j.yqres.2006.03.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Harrison, M. J., Pacha, R. E., & Morita, R. Y. (1972). Solubilization of inorganic phosphates by bacteria isolated from Klamath Lake sediment. Limnology and Oceanography, 17, 50–57.Google Scholar
- Hoilman, G. R., Lindenberg, M. K., & Wood, T. M.(2008). Water quality conditions in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, 2005. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5026.Google Scholar
- Klamath Consulting Service, Inc.(1983) EPA 314 clean lakes program: phase I diagnostic/feasibility project: Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. (pdf) http://klamathwaterlib.oit.edu/inside/How%20ti%20cute.pdf. Accessed 6 February 2009.
- Koopmans, G. F., Chardon, W. J., Dolfing, J., Oenema, O., van der Meer, P., & van Riemsdijk, W. H. (2003). Wet chemical and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of phosphorus speciation in a sandy soil receiving long-term fertilizer or animal manure applications. Journal of Environmental Quality, 32, 287–295.Google Scholar
- Kuwabara, J. S., Lynch, D. D., Topping, B. R., Murphy, F., Carter, J. L., Simon, N. S., Parchaso, F., Wood, T.M., Lindenberg, M.K., Wiese, K., & Avanzino, R.(2007). Quantifying the benthic source of nutrients to the water column of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007–1276.Google Scholar
- Laenen, A., & LeTourneau, A. P. (1996). Upper Klamath Basin Nutrient-Loading Study-Estimate of wind-induced resuspension of bed sediment during periods of low lake elevation. U.S.Geological Survey Open-File Report 95–414Google Scholar
- National Research Council (2004). Endangered and threatened fishes in the Klamath River Basin: Causes of decline and strategies for recovery Committee on Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin, National Research Council, Executive Summary by the National Academies. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (2002). Upper Klamath Lake Drainage Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) and Water Quality Management Plan (WQMP) p. 586. Portland, OR, 97204: State of Oregon Department of Environmental Quality.Google Scholar
- Rand, M. C., Greenberg, A. E., & Taras, M. J.(1976). Standard methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 14th edition, (pp. 466–483) American Public Health Association American Water Works Association and Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Reynolds, R. L., Rosenbaum, J. G., Rapp, J., Kerwin, W., Bradbury, J. P., Colman, S., & Adam, D. (2004). Record of late Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation in the southern Cascade Range. I. Petrological evidence from lacustrine sediment in Upper Klamath Lake, southern Oregon. Journal of Paleolimnology, 31, 217–233. doi: 10.1023/B:JOPL.0000019230.42575.03.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Robert, M., & Chenu, C. (1992). Interactions between soil minerals and microorganisms. In G. Stotzky, & J. -M. Bollag (Eds.), Soil Biochemistry (vol. 7, pp. 307–404). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
- Ruban, V. J., López-Sánchez, F., Pardo, P., Rauret, G., Muntau, H., & Quevauviller, P. (1999). Selection and evaluation of sequential extraction procedures for the determination of phosphorus forms in lake sediment. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 1, 51–56. doi: 10.1039/a807778i.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ruttenberg, K. C. (1992). Development of a sequential extraction method for different forms of phosphorus in marine sediments. Limnology and Oceanography, 37, 1460–1482.Google Scholar
- Schwertmann, U., & Cornell, R. M. (2000). Iron Oxides in the Laboratory (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley-VCH.Google Scholar
- Simon, N. S., Bricker, O. P., Newell, W., McCoy, R., & Morawe, R. (2005). The distribution of phosphorus in Popes Creek, VA, and in the Pocomoke River, MD: Two watersheds with different land management practices in the Chesapeake Bay Basin. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 164, 189–204. doi: 10.1007/s11270-005-3024-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Spyridakis, D. E., & Welch, E. B.(1973) Nutrient budgets in the lakes of the Cedar River watershed. Internal report 85 in 1972 Annual Report. Coniferous Forest Biome, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98175, 19 pp.Google Scholar
- Turner, B. L., Mahieu, N., & Condron, L. M. (2003). Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectral assignments of phosphorus compounds in soil NaOH-EDTA extracts. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 67, 497–510.Google Scholar
- Walker, W. W. (2001). Development of phosphorus TMDL for Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, Report prepared for Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Portland, OR, USA.Google Scholar
- Wood, T. M., Hoilman, G. R., & Lindenberg, M. K.(2006). Water-quality conditions in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2002–2004. U. S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006–5209.Google Scholar