Phosphine in the Lower Atmosphere of Qingdao—A Coastal Site of the Yellow Sea (China)
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Gaseous phosphine (PH3) in the inshore atmosphere was observed from October 2005 to August 2006 at a coastal site of the Yellow Sea in China. The concentration of PH3 ranged from 0.01 to 14.86 ng m−3 with an average of 1.14 ng m−3. The concentration showed a diurnal variation in PH3 with the peak occurring at morning and the lowest point at noon. An obvious seasonal variation of atmospheric PH3 was found, with the PH3 levels in the summer higher than those in the winter. The PH3 levels in the atmosphere were apparently affected by temperature, radiation, sources, and other meteorological factors. The data indicate that PH3 can be transported between the terrestrial and inshore atmosphere of Qingdao and the Yellow Sea or the East China Sea in both directions. The study increases evidence that PH3 participates within the global biogeochemical phosphorus cycle in P transport from land and inshore waters to the sea where commonly P is scarce and where PH3 inflow could be of important.
KeywordsPhosphine Diurnal variation Seasonal variation Yellow Sea Phosphorus transportation
This study was supported by the National Science Foundation of China (grant no. 40506025) and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (grant no. 2006CB400601). We also thank Drs. Shenhui Han and Lili Ding for their advice in determining PH3 and two reviewers for their comments and suggestions which greatly improved the manuscript. We are grateful to Ms. Janice Willson for her English language editorial work.
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