Apatite Control of Phosphorus Release to Runoff from Soils of Phosphate Mine Reclamation Areas
Phosphorus (P) in runoff can pose a water quality risk in phosphate mine reclamation areas. High dissolved P (DP) concentrations (about 0.4–3.0 mg L−1) in runoff from these areas and high equilibrium P concentrations for the soils led us to hypothesize that P release is controlled by dissolution of apatite rather than by desorption mechanisms. Objectives were to (a) verify via chemical- and solid-state assessments that P in the reclamation soils is mainly in the form of apatite and (b) examine evidence that DP concentrations in runoff water from these soils is controlled by apatite dissolution. Soil analyses included total P (TP), P sorption isotherms, P fractionation, mineralogy, and P distribution by particle size classes. Runoff samples were chemically characterized and modeled for speciation. Results showed high TP concentrations and the presence of apatite. The Ca- and Mg-bound P accounted for about 95% of TP. Runoff samples were undersaturated with respect to apatite. A strong relationship between calculated apatite specific surface area and measured DP concentration in water extracts is supportive of other evidence that apatite dissolution is a major factor controlling P release from these soils. Data indicate that these soils will be a long-term P source rather than sink. Results are applicable to other phosphate mine reclamation sites and illustrate the need to account for compositional differences between reconstructed soils on reclaimed mining sites and their indigenous soil analogues.
KeywordsDissolved phosphorus Specific surface area Apatite Dissolution Reclamation area Surface runoff
- Babare, A. M., Sale, P. W. G., Fleming, N., Garden, D. L., & Johnson, D. (1997). The agronomic effectiveness of reactive phosphate rocks 5. The effect of particle size of a moderately reactive phosphate rock. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 37, 969–984. doi:10.1071/EA96112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brakensiek, D. L., Osborn, H. B., & Rawls, W. J. (1979). Field manual for research in agricultural hydrology. USDA Agriculture Handbook No. 224. Washington: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- DEP. (2006). Peace river cumulative impact study. Water Quality. http://www.floridadep.org. Accessed 08 February 2007.
- Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering. (2006). Visual MINTEQ Version 2.51. http://www.lwr.kth.se/English/OurSoftware/vminteq/. Accessed 22 February 2007.
- Driessens, F. C. M. (1982). Mineral aspects of dentistry. In H. M. Myers (Ed.), Monographs in Oral Science, 10, 49–90.Google Scholar
- Elliott, J. C. (1994). Structure and chemistry of the apatites and other calcium orthophosphates. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Hanna, J., & Anazia, I. (1990). Selective flotation of dolomitic limestone impurities from Florida phosphates. Florida institutes of phosphate research report 02-066-089.Google Scholar
- Harris, W. G., & White, G. N. (2008). X-ray diffraction analysis of soils. In A. Ulery, & R. Drees (Eds.), Methods of soil analysis: Part 5—Mineralogical methods. Madison: Soil Science Society of America.Google Scholar
- Harris, W. G., Rhue, R. D., Kidder, G., Brown, R. B., & Littell, R. (1996). P retention as related to morphology of sandy coastal plain soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 60, 1513–1521.Google Scholar
- He, Z. L., Zhang, M. K., Calvert, D. V., Stoffella, P. J., & Li, Y. C. (2003). Loading of phosphorus in surface runoff in relation to management practices and soil properties. Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida Proceedings, 62, 12–19.Google Scholar
- Jackson, M. L. (1969). Soil chemical analysis-advanced course. Madison: Department of Soils, University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
- Jackson, M. L., & Tanner, C. B. (1947). Nomographs of sedimentation times for soil particles under gravity or centrifugal acceleration. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 12, 60–65.Google Scholar
- Jahnke, R. A. (1984). The synthesis and solubility of carbonate fluorapatite. American Journal of Science, 284, 58–78.Google Scholar
- Kuo, Y. M. (2007). Vegetative filter strips to control surface runoff phosphorus transport from mining sand tailings in the upper Peace River basin of Central Florida. PhD dissertation, University of Florida, Florida.Google Scholar
- McClellan, G. H., & Lehr, J. R. (1969). Crystal chemical investigation of natural apatites. The American Mineralogist, 54, 1374–1391.Google Scholar
- McConnell, D. (1973). Apatite, its crystal chemistry, mineralogy, utilization, and geologic and biologic occurrences. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- McDowell, R. W., & Sharpley, A. N. (2001). Approximating phosphorus release from soils to surface runoff and subsurface drainage. Journal of Environmental Quality, 30, 508–520.Google Scholar
- McDowell, H., Gregory, T. M., & Brown, W. E. (1977). Solubility of Ca5(PO4)3OH in the system Ca(OH)2–H3PO4–H2O at 5, 15, 25, and 37°C. Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards, 81A, 273–281.Google Scholar
- Mehlich, A. (1953). Determination of P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, NH 4 . Soil testing division publication pp. 1–53. Raleigh: North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Agronomic Division.Google Scholar
- Mueller, D. K., Hamilton, P. A., Helsel, D. R., Hitt, K. J., & Ruddy, B. C. (1995). Nutrients in ground water and surface water of the United States—An analysis of data through 1992. U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Investigations Report 95-4031, 74p.Google Scholar
- Nair, V. D., Graetz, D. A., & Portier, K. M. (1995). Forms of phosphorus in soil profiles from dairies of south Florida. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 59, 1244–1249.Google Scholar
- Nelson, D. W., & Sommers, L. E. (1982). Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In A. L. Page, et al. (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Madison: Agronomy monograph No. 9. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America.Google Scholar
- Olsen, S. R., & Khasawneh, F. E. (1980). Use and limitations of physical–chemical criteria for assessing the status of phosphorus in soils. In F. E. Khasawneh, E. C. Sample, & E. J. Kamprath (Eds.), The role of phosphorus in agriculture (pp. 361–410). Madison: American Society of Agronomy.Google Scholar
- Regnier, P., Lasaga, A. C., Berner, R. A., Han, O. H., & Zilm, K. W. (1994). Mechanisms of CO3 2− substitution in carbonate fluorapatite: Evidence from FTIR spectroscopy, 13C NMR, and quantum mechanical calculations. The American Mineralogist, 79, 809–818.Google Scholar
- Sharpley, A. N., Ahuja, L. R., Yamamoto, M., & Menzel, R. G. (1981). The kinetics of phosphorus desorption from soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 45, 493–496.Google Scholar
- Storm, D. E., Dillaha, T. A., Mostaghimi, S., & Shanholtz, V. O. (1988). Modeling phosphorus transport in surface runoff. Transactions of the ASABE, 31(1), 117–126.Google Scholar
- Southwest Florida Water Management District. (2001). Peace River comprehensive watershed management plan. Volume I. http://www.floridadep.org. Accessed 08 February 2007.
- USEPA. (2000). Water Quality Criteria for Nitrogen and Phosphorus Pollution, EPA 822-B-00-021, Office of Water (4304), Washington, DC. http://www.epa.gov/ waterscience/criteria/nutrient/ecoregions/rivers/rivers_12.pdf. Accessed 02 April. 2008.
- Vadas, P. A., & Sims, J. T. (2002). Predicting phosphorus desorption from Mid-Atlantic coastal plain soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66, 623–631.Google Scholar
- Van Kauwenbergh, S. J., Cathcart, J. B., & McClellan, G. H. (1990). Mineralogy and alteration of the phosphatic deposits of Florida. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1914. U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Wang, H. D., Harris, W. G., & Yuan, T. L. (1989). Phosphate minerals in some Florida phosphatic soils. Soil and Crop Science Society of Florida Proceedings, 48, 49–55.Google Scholar