Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 201, Issue 1–4, pp 195–208 | Cite as

Heavy Metal–Mineral Associations in Coeur d’Alene River Sediments: A Synchrotron-Based Analysis

  • James G. Moberly
  • Thomas Borch
  • Rajesh K. Sani
  • Nicolas F. Spycher
  • S. Sevinc Şengör
  • Timothy R. Ginn
  • Brent M. Peyton
Article

Abstract

Nearly a century of mining activities upstream have contaminated Lake Coeur d’Alene and its tributaries with Pb, Zn, and other heavy metals. Heavy metal concentrations in sediments of the Coeur d’Alene watershed have been shown to be inversely proportional to the sediment size fraction; thus, analysis on a very small scale is essential to determine the mobility and stability of heavy metals in this environment. Micron-scale synchrotron-based methods were used to determine the association of heavy metals with solid phases in sediments of the Coeur d’Alene River. Bulk X-ray diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and synchrotron-based microfocused XRD combined with microfocused X-ray fluorescence mapping indicate the presence of crystalline Pb- and Zn-bearing mineral phases of dundasite [Pb2Al4(CO3)4(OH)8·3H2O], coronadite [PbMn8O16], stolzite [PbWO4], mattheddleite [Pb10(SiO4)3.5(SO4)2Cl2], bindheimite [Pb2Sb2O7], and smithsonite [ZnCO3]. Likely phases for Zn and Pb adsorption were ferrihydrite, diaspore [AlO(OH)], manganite [Mn(III)O(OH)], muscovite [KAl2(Si3Al)O10(OH,F)2], biotite [K(Fe,Mg)3AlSi3O10(F,OH)2], and montmorillonite [Na0.3(Al,Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2·8H2O]. The large predominance of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides over other sorbent minerals suggests that the metal sorption behavior is dominated by these (hydr)oxide phases.

Keywords

Coeur d’Alene Zinc Lead Sediment Characterization XAS 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0628258. The support of the WSU Center for Multiphase Environmental Research and the WSU School of Chemical and Bioengineering also contributed significantly to this research. Portions of this research were carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, a national user facility operated by Stanford University on behalf of the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The Advanced Light Source is supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. The authors greatly appreciate the help of Charles Knaack, Diane Johnson Cornelius, and Rick Conrey at WSU Geo Analytical Laboratories for sample analysis and counsel. Additional thanks to Peg Dirckx, Brandy Stewart, Lisa Kirk, and two anonymous reviewers for greatly improving the quality of the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • James G. Moberly
    • 1
    • 2
  • Thomas Borch
    • 3
  • Rajesh K. Sani
    • 1
    • 4
  • Nicolas F. Spycher
    • 5
  • S. Sevinc Şengör
    • 6
  • Timothy R. Ginn
    • 6
  • Brent M. Peyton
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Chemical and BioengineeringWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemical and Biological EngineeringMontana State UniversityBozemanUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Chemistry and Soil and Crop SciencesColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  4. 4.Chemical and Biological Engineering DepartmentSouth Dakota School of Mines and TechnologyRapid CityUSA
  5. 5.Geochemistry Department, Earth Sciences DivisionLawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryBerkeleyUSA
  6. 6.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

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