Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 185, Issue 1–4, pp 239–254 | Cite as

Foliar, Physiologial and Growth Responses of Four Maple Species Exposed to Ozone

  • Vicent CalatayudEmail author
  • Júlia Cerveró
  • María José Sanz


The effects of ozone in four maple species, Acer campestre, A. opalus subsp. granatense, A. monspessulanum and A. pseudoplatanus were studied in OTC under two different experimental conditions: in charcoal filtered air (CF), and in non filtered air plus 30 ppb ozone (NF+30). The four species of maple showed contrasting sensitivity to ozone as demonstrated by visible injury development, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence, and growth measurements. Plant injury index (i.e. a combination of percentage of injured leaves and leaf surface affected) was more consistently related with physiological measurements than the onset of first symptom of visible injury. Differences in ozone sensitivity among species may be partly related to higher stomatal conductances in A. opalus and A. pseudoplatanus. In these two species, ozone produced significant reductions in CO2 assimilation under saturating light conditions (A sat), stomatal conductance (g s), transpiration rate (T r) and Water Use Efficiency (WUE) (the latter also significantly declined in A. campestre) towards the end of summer, while intercellular CO2 concentrations (C i) increased significantly. In asymptomatic leaves of A. opalus, neither stomatal limitation nor photoinhibitory damage (F v/F m) could explain the observed decline of A sat, and photosynthesis was down regulated by reducing the proportion of absorbed energy used in photochemistry (Φ PSII) at expenses of the energy dispersed non-photochemically (NPQ). Leaf N content also declined significantly in A. pseudoplatanus. Plants exposed to ozone showed a tendency to decrease growth, but it was not significant within the exposure period for any of the four species. The most sensitive species were A. opalus and A. pseudoplatanus, while the species with the smallest and more coriaceous leaves, A. monspessulanum, was the most resistant.


Ozone Visible injury Oxidative stress Photosynthesis Fluorescence Chlorophyll C/N 



light saturated CO2 assimilation


accumulated exposure over threshold 40 ppb


intercellular CO2 concentrations


Continuously Stirred Tank Reactors


days after starting of fumigation


quantum efficiency of excitation capture by oxidized reaction centers of PSII


quantum yield of electron transfer at PSII


maximum fluorescence

\( F^{\prime }_{{\text{m}}} \)

maximum fluorescence in the light adapted state


minimal fluorescence

\( F^{\prime }_{{\text{o}}} \)

minimum fluorescence in the light-adapted state


modulated fluorescence yield at steady state


maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) primary photochemistry


stomatal conductance to water vapor


quenching due to non-photochemical dissipation of absorved light energy


open top chamber


photosynthetic photon flux density


coefficient for photochemical quenching.


relative height growth rate


transpiration rate


leaf-to-air water vapor pressure deficit


water Use Efficiency, calculated as A sat/T r



M.J.S. and V.C. thank the DGCN (MMA), and Conselleria de Territori i Habitatge (project FORMEDOZON, Interreg III B) for funding this study, and to Generalitat Valenciana and Bancaixa for continuous support to Fundación CEAM. This work has been carried out in connection with the activities of the Working Group of Ambient Air Quality of ICP-Forests. Esperanza Calvo is acknowledged for fruitful discussions on the article. Carmen Martín is thanked for taking care of the plants. José Reig-Armiñana and Francisco García-Breijo are also thanked for information on the anatomical traits of the plants. Ana Bucher helped with the C and N analyses.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vicent Calatayud
    • 1
    Email author
  • Júlia Cerveró
    • 1
  • María José Sanz
    • 1
  1. 1.Fundación CEAM, Parc TecnològicValenciaSpain

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