Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals by Eight Plant Species in the Field
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Phytoremediation is an in situ, cost-effective potential strategy for cleanup of sites contaminated with trace metals. Selection of plant materials is an important factor for successful field phytoremediation. A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the phytoextraction abilities of six high biomass plants (Vertiveria zizanioides, Dianthus chinensis, Rumex K-1 (Rumex upatientia × R. timschmicus), Rumex crispus, and two populations of Rumex acetosa) in comparison to metal hyperaccumulators (Viola baoshanensis, Sedum alfredii). The paddy fields used in the experiment were contaminated with Pb, Zn, and Cd. Our results indicated that V. baoshanensis accumulated 28 mg kg−1 Cd and S. alfredii accumulated 6,279 mg kg−1 Zn (dry weight) in shoots, with bioconcentration factors up to 4.8 and 6.3, respectively. The resulting total extractions of V. baoshanensis and S. alfredii were 0.17 kg ha−1 for Cd and 32.7 kg ha−1 for Zn, respectively, with one harvest without any treatment. The phytoextraction rates of V. baoshanensis and S. alfredii for Cd and Zn were 0.88 and 1.15%, respectively. Among the high biomass plants, R. crispus extracted Zn and Cd of 26.8 and 0.16 kg ha−1, respectively, with one harvest without any treatment, so it could be a candidate species for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn from soil. No plants were proved to have the ability to phytoextract Pb with high efficiency.