Ammonia Emissions from Anaerobically-digested Slurry and Chemical Fertilizer Applied to Flooded Forage Rice
- First Online:
- Cite this article as:
- Hou, H., Zhou, S., Hosomi, M. et al. Water Air Soil Pollut (2007) 183: 37. doi:10.1007/s11270-007-9353-9
- 242 Downloads
Ammonia fluxes from application of anaerobically-digested slurry (ADS) and chemical fertilizer (CF) to flooded forage rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Japan were measured using a dynamic flow-through chamber method in lysimeters. The CF was applied at a rate of 300 N ha−1 (three times) as ammoniacal-N fertilizer, and the ADS was applied to the lysimeters at total rates equivalent to 75, 100 and 150 kg N ha−1, by broadcasting uniformly into the floodwater at three or six times (equal splits) between 17th June and 17th November, 2005. The emission fluxes for the first 2 days after application were very high from ADS, the highest values being 679 compared with a maximum of 156 mg N m−2 d−1 from CF. Most (61–93%) of the ammonia loss occurred during the first 5 days after each application of fertilizer. The total N loss as ammonia from ADS (29.6–51.7%) was much higher than from CF (12.2%). The highest fluxes were observed in August (2005) when air temperature was highest. More ammonia was lost from the ADS applied at the early stages (i.e. root taking, tiller stages) than at later stages (i.e. elongation, fruiting stages) of rice growth.