Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 175, Issue 1–4, pp 335–359 | Cite as

Analysis of major photochemical pollutants with meteorological factors for high ozone days in Istanbul, Turkey

  • Ulaş İm
  • Mete Tayanç
  • Orhan Yenigün


Hourly ozone, NO x and VOC concentrations, measured during 2001–2003 summer periods, are analyzed in order to examine the interaction patterns between the major photochemical pollutants in İstanbul. 34 high ozone days throughout the summer periods of the three years are determined and examined in the study together with the meteorological parameters like temperature, wind and vertical structure of the atmosphere. The results show that high levels of ozone are observed mostly under anticyclonic conditions with relatively low wind speeds. High ozone days generally experienced maximum concentrations at afternoon hours and minimum concentrations are reached at rush hours due to NO x – titration by traffic emissions. High negative correlations with NO x up to -0.84 are observed at the Saraçhane station while higher correlations for VOC species, up to −0.75, are calculated for Kadiköy station. Some individual episodes experiencing high ozone concentrations up to 310 μg m−3 in the early morning hours are also studied. It is found that decreasing inversion heights in the early hours of the day led to suppression of pollutants close to surface and thus, an increase in ozone concentrations was observed. Low wind speeds played a major role in the increase of pollution levels in the region. HYSPLIT model is applied to some particular episodes and the results show that the northeasterly transport to the region was dominant, especially in the early-morning maximums.


İstanbul Ozone episodes Interaction patterns HYSPLIT trajectory model Radiosonde data 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aneja, P. V., Roelle, P. and Robarge, W. P.: 1997, ‘Contribution of Biogenic Nitric oxide in urban ozone Raleigh, NC, as a case study’, Atmos. Environ. 31, 1531–1537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anteplioglu, U.: 2000, ‘Modeling of surface ozone with UAM: a case study for İstanbul. Ph.D. Thesis’, İstanbul Technical University.Google Scholar
  3. Dabdub, D., DeHaan, L. L. and Seinfeld, J. H.: 1999, ‘Analysis of ozone in the San Joaquin Valley of California’, Atmos. Environ. 33, 2501–2514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Davis, J. M. and Speckman, P.: 1999, ‘A model for predicting maximum and 8 h average ozone in Houstan’, Atmos. Environ. 33, 2487–2500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Derwent, R. G., Simmonds, P. G., Seuring, S. and Dimmer, C.: 1997, ‘Observation and interpretation of the seasonal cycles in the surface concentrations of ozone and carbon monoxide at Mace Head, Ireland’, Atmos. Environ. 32, 145–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. EEA Topic report 3/2003, Air pollution by ozone in Europe in summer 2003: overview of exceedances of EC ozone threshold values during the summer season April–August 2003 and comparisons with previous years.Google Scholar
  7. EEA Technical Report, No 3/2005, Air pollution by ozone in Europe in summer 2004: overview of exceedances of EC ozone threshold values during April–September 2004.Google Scholar
  8. Entwistle, J., Weston, K., Singles, R. and Burgess, R.: 1997, 1The magnitude and extent of elevated ozone concentrations around the coasts of British Isles', Atmos. Environ. 31, 1925–1932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grant, R. H. and Wong, K.: 1999, ‘Ozone profiles over a suburban neighborhood’, Atmos. Environ. 33, 51–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Güsten, H., Heinrich, G., Monnich, E., Weppner, J., Cvitas, T., Klasinc, L., Varotsos, C. A. and Asimakopoulos, N.: 1996, ‘Thessaloniki ’91 field measurement campaign – II, ozone formation in the Greater Thessaloniki Area’, Atmos. Environ. 37, 1115–1126.Google Scholar
  11. Jiang, W., Singleton, D. L., Hedly, M. and McLaren, R.: 1996, ‘Sensitivity of ozone concentrations to VOC and NOx emissions in the Canadian Lower Fraser Valley’, Atmos. Environ. 31, 627–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jorquera, H., Perez, R., Cipriano, A., Espejo, A., Letelier, M. V. and Acuna, G.: 1998, ‘Forecasting ozone daily maximum levels at Santiago, Chile’, Atmos. Environ. 32, 3415–3424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kalabokas, P. D. and Bartzis, J. G.: 1998, ‘Photochemical air pollution characteristics at the station of the NCSR – Demokritos, during the Medcaphot – Trace campaign in Athens, Greece (20 August – 20 September 1994’, Atmos. Environ. 32, 2123–2139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Klemm, O., Ziomas, I. C., Balis, D., Suppan, P., Slemr, J., Romeo, R. and Vyras, L. G.: 1998, ‘A summer air – pollution study in Athens, Greece’, Atmos. Environ. 32, 2071–2087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lu, W. Z. and Wang, X. K.: 2004, ‘Interaction of major air pollutants in Hong Kong territory’, Sci. Total Environ. 324, 247–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Monks, P. S., Carpenter, L. J., Penkett, S. A., Ayers, G. P., Gillett, R. W., Galbally, I. E. and Meyer, C. P.: 1998, ‘Fundamental ozone photochemistry in the remote marine boundary layer; the Soapex experiment, measurement and theory’, Atmos. Environ. 32, 3647–3664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Navas, M. J., Jimenez, A. M. and Galan, G.: 1997, ‘Air analysis: determination of nitrogen compounds by chemiluminescene’, Atmos. Environ. 31, 3603–3608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Peleg, M., Luria, M., Sharf, G., Vanger, A., Kallos, G., Kotroni, V., Lagouvardos, K. and Varinou, M.: 1997, ‘Observational evidence of an ozone episode over the Greater Athens Area’, Atmos. Environ. 31, 3969–3983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Seinfeld, J. H. and Pandis, S. N.: 1998, Atmospheric chemistry and physics: from air pollution to climate change. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  20. Sillman, S.: 1999, ‘The relation between ozone, NOx and hydrocarbons in urban and polluted rural environments’, Atmos. Environ. 33, 1821–1845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Skov, H., Egelov, A. H., Granby, K. and Nielsen, T.: 1996, ‘Relationships between ozone and other photochemical products at L1. Valby, Denmark’, Atmos. Environ. 31, 685–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Topçu, S. and İncecik, S.: 2002, 1Surface ozone measurements and meteorological influences in the urban atmosphere of İstanbul’, Int. J. Environ. Pollut. 17, 390–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Topçu, S., Anteplioglu, U. and İncecik, S.: 2003, ‘Surface ozone concentrations and its relation to wind field in İstanbul’, Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus 3, 53–64.Google Scholar
  24. Topçu, S., Kahya, C., İncecik, S., Ercan, S. G. and Basar U. G.: 2005, ‘Review of surface ozone and its precursors in urban atmosphere of Istanbul, Turkey for 2002–2003’, In: S. Topçu, M.F. Yardım, A. Bayram, T. Elbir and C. Kahya (Eds.), Proceedings of air quality management at urban, regional and global scales (Vol. 3). September 2005, pp. 1083–1093.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Environmental SciencesBogazici UniversityİstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental EngineeringMarmara UniversityİstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations