Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 173, Issue 1–4, pp 273–287 | Cite as

Evidence of Elevated Ozone Concentrations on Forested Slopes of the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada

  • Judi Krzyzanowski
  • Ian G. McKendry
  • John L. Innes
Article

Abstract

During the summers of 2001 and 2002, hourly average ozone concentrations were measured at three sites of differing elevation (188, 588, and 1221 m.a.s.l.) on the forested south-facing slopes of the Lower Fraser Valley (LFV), British Columbia. Sites experienced ozone concentrations ranging from 0 to 88 ppb in 2001, and 0 to 96 ppb in 2002. Daily patterns were in agreement with previous studies showing morning increases and late afternoon peaks. Reduced diurnal variation increased the exposure of higher-elevation forested sites. An upper-level ridge coinciding with a thermal coastal trough caused above-average ozone concentrations, and the ‘maximum acceptable’ 1-hour National Ambient Air Quality Objective (AQO) of 82 ppb to be exceeded. Maximum ozone concentrations and AQO exceedance frequency both increased with distance eastward in the valley. A preliminary survey of ozone-like injury symptoms on native shrubs suggested that the elevated ozone levels occurring in the LFV may cause injury to forest plants.

Keywords

air quality objectives elevation gradient forest impacts Tropospheric ozone Vancouver 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arbaugh, M., Bytnerowicz, A., Grulke, N., Fenn, M., Poth, M., Temple, P. and Miller, P.: 2003, ‘Photochemical smog effects in mixed conifer forests along a natural gradient of ozone and nitrogen deposition in the San Bernardino Mountains’, Environ. Int. 29, 401–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. BC STATS: 2004, ‘British Columbia Population Projections’, Ministry of Management Services P.E.O.P.L.E. 29, July 2004, 6 pp. http://www.bcstats.gov.bc.ca/data/pop/pop/Project/P30BCIntro. pdf
  3. Bergmann, E., Bender, J. and Weigel, H.-J.: 1999, ‘Ozone threshold doses and exposure-response relationships for the development of ozone injury symptoms in wild plant species’, New Phytol. 144, 423–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brace, S. and Peterson, D. L.: 1998, ‘Spatial patterns of tropospheric ozone in the Mount Ranier region of the Cascade mountains, U.S.A’, Atmos. Environ. 32(21), 3629–3637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brace, S., Peterson, D. L. and Bowers, D.: 1999, A guide to ozone injury in vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, Oregon, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-446, 63 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Fast, J. D. and Zhong, S.: 1998, ‘Meteorological factors associated with inhomogeneous ozone concentrations within the Mexico City basin’, J. Geophys. Res. 103(D15), 18927–18946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fuhrer, J. and Acherman, B., (eds.): 1994, Critical levels for ozone: a UN-ECE Workshop Report. FAC Report No.16, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agricultural Chemistry and Environmental Hygiene, Liebefeld-Bern, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  8. Ghosh, S., Skelly, J. M., Innes, J. L. and Skelly, J. L.: 1998, ‘Temporal development of visual ozone injury on the foliage of Prunus serotina — a statistical evaluation’, Environ. Pollut. 102, 287–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hogsett, W. E., Weber, J. E., Tingey, D., Herstrom, A., Lee, E. H. and Laurence, J. A.: 1997, ‘Environmental Auditing: An approach for characterizing tropospheric ozone risk to forests’, Environ. Manag. 21(1), 105–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Horsfall, J. G. and Barratt, R. W.: 1945, ‘An improved grading system for measuring plant disease’, Phytopathol. 35, 655.Google Scholar
  11. Innes, J. L., Skelly, J. M. and Schaub, M.: 2001, Ozone and broadleaved species: A guide to identification of ozone-induced foliar injury, Haupt, Switzerland 136pp.Google Scholar
  12. Kickert, R. N. and Krupa, S. V.: 1991, ‘Modeling plant response to tropospheric ozone: a critical review’, Environ. Pollut. 70, 271–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Koch, R.: 1876, Untersuchungen über Bacterian. V. Die Aetiologie der Milzbrand-Krankheit, begründet auf die Entwicklungsgeschichte des Bacillus Anthracis’, Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen 2, 277–310.Google Scholar
  14. Krupa, S. V. and Kickert, R. N.: 1997, ‘Considerations for establishing relationships between ambient ozone (O3) and adverse crop response’, Environ. Rev. 5, 55–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Krupa, S. V., Tonneijck, A. E. G. and Manning, W. J.: 1998, ‘Ozone’, in R. B. Flager (ed.), Recognition of air pollution injury to vegetation: a pictorial atlas, Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, pp. 2-1–2-28.Google Scholar
  16. McKendry, I. G.: 1994, ‘Synoptic circulation and summertime ground-level ozone concentrations at Vancouver, British Columbia’, J. Appl. Meteorol. 33(5), 627–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McKendry, I. G., Steyn, D. G., Lundgren, J., Hoff, R. M., Strapp, W., Anlauf, K., Froude, F., Martin, J. B., Banta, R. M. and Oliver, L. D.: 1997, ‘Elevated ozone layers and vertical down-mixing over the Lower Fraser Valley BC’, Atmos. Environ. 31, 2135–2146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McKendry, I. G. and Lundgren, J.: 2000, ‘Tropospheric layering of ozone in regions of urbanised complex and/or coastal terrain: a review’, Prog. Phys. Geogr. 24(3), 359–384.Google Scholar
  19. McLaughlin, D.: 1998, ‘A decade of forest tree monitoring in Canada: evidence of air pollution effects’, Environ. Rev. 6, 151–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Miller, P. R. and Arbaugh, M. J.: 2000, ‘Ozone impacts on Californian forests’, in J. L. Innes and J. Oleksyn (eds.), Forest dynamics in heavily polluted regions (report No.1 of the IUFRO task force on environmental change), Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp. 147–163.Google Scholar
  21. Montreal Process: 1999, Criteria and indicators for the conservation and sustainable management of temperate and boreal forests. Second Edition, 16 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Novak, K., Skelly, J. M., Schaub, M., Kräuchi, N., Hug, C., Landolt, W. and Bleuler, P.: 2003, ‘Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland’, Environ. Pollut. 125, 41–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pryor, S. C., McKendry, I. G. and Steyn, D. G.: 1995, ‘Synoptic-scale meteorological variability and surface ozone concentrations in Vancouver, British Columbia’, J. Appl. Meteorol. 34, 1824–1833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Reich, P. B. and Amundson, R. G.: 1985, ‘Ambient levels of ozone reduce net photosynthesis in tree and crop species’, Science 230, 566–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Salmond, J. A. and McKendry I. G.: 2002, ‘Secondary ozone maxima in a very stable nocturnal boundary layer: observations from the Lower Fraser Valley, BC’, Atmos. Environ. 36, 5771–5782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sandroni, S., Bacci, P., Boffa, G., Pellegrini, U. and Ventura, A.: 1994, ‘Tropospheric ozone in pre-alpine and alpine regions’, Sci. Tot. Environ. 156, 169–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sanz, M. J. and Millán, M. M.: 2000, ‘Ozone in the Mediterranean Region: Evidence of Injury to Vegetation’, in J. L. Innes and J. Oleksyn (eds.), Forest dynamics in heavily polluted regions (report No.1 of the IUFRO task force on environmental change), Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp. 165–192.Google Scholar
  28. Steyn, D. G., Bottenheim, J. W. and Thomson, R. B.: 1997, ‘Overview of tropospheric ozone in the LFV and the Pacific ‘93 field study’, Atmos. Environ. 31, 2025–2036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Treffeisen, R., Grunow, K., Möller, D. and Hainsch, A.: 2002, ‘Quantification of source region influences on the ozone burden’, Atmos. Environ. 36, 3565-3582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wanner, H., Künzle, T., Neu, U., Ilhy, B., Baumbach, G. and Steisslinger, B.: 1993, ‘On the dynamics of photochemical smog over the Swiss Middleland — results in the first POLLUMET field experiment’ Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 15, 117–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. WLAP: 2002, ‘BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection web-site’, Lower Mainland, Archived Data. http://www.elp.gov.bc.ca:8000/pls/aqiis/aqi.bulletin

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Judi Krzyzanowski
    • 1
  • Ian G. McKendry
    • 2
  • John L. Innes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forest Resources ManagementThe University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Department of GeographyThe University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations