Seasonal Evolution of Levels of Gaseous Pollutants in an Urban Area (Ciudad Real) in Central-Southern Spain: A Doas Study
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Long term continuous monitoring measurements of urban atmospheric concentrations of O3, NO2, NO, and SO2 were performed for the first time in Ciudad Real, a city in central-southern Spain. The measurements were carried out using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique, with a commercial system (OPSIS, Lund-Sweden), covering the summer and winter seasons (from 21st July 2000 to 23rd March 2001). Mean levels of O3, NO2 and SO2 monitored during this period were: 27 μg m−3, 50 μg m−3 and 7 μg m−3 respectively. The highest hourly averaged value of O3 (160 μg m−3) was measured during the summer period, while NO2 was enhanced in wintertime (highest values 90 μg m−3). In the coldest period, when central heating installations were operating, SO2 showed maximum levels of 20 μg m−3. The daily, weekly and seasonal analysis of the data shows that photochemical air pollution dominates in this urban atmosphere and is strongly influenced by levels of motor traffic and domestic heating system emissions. These measurements were compared with other studies in Spain and Europe. Also, the long path averaged DOAS measurements were compared with in situ observations made in Ciudad Real, from 23rd August 2000 to 25th September 2000, using a mobile air pollution control station. All gas concentrations reported in this paper are below the WHO guidelines and the different thresholds introduced by the European Environmental Legislation.
Keywordsair monitoring DOAS ozone seasonal variation traffic emissions
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