Water, Air, & Soil Pollution

, Volume 171, Issue 1–4, pp 153–167 | Cite as

Seasonal Evolution of Levels of Gaseous Pollutants in an Urban Area (Ciudad Real) in Central-Southern Spain: A Doas Study

  • Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
  • Alberto Notario
  • Ernesto Martinez
  • Jos#x00C9; AlbaladejoEmail author


Long term continuous monitoring measurements of urban atmospheric concentrations of O3, NO2, NO, and SO2 were performed for the first time in Ciudad Real, a city in central-southern Spain. The measurements were carried out using the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique, with a commercial system (OPSIS, Lund-Sweden), covering the summer and winter seasons (from 21st July 2000 to 23rd March 2001). Mean levels of O3, NO2 and SO2 monitored during this period were: 27 μg m−3, 50 μg m−3 and 7 μg m−3 respectively. The highest hourly averaged value of O3 (160 μg m−3) was measured during the summer period, while NO2 was enhanced in wintertime (highest values 90 μg m−3). In the coldest period, when central heating installations were operating, SO2 showed maximum levels of 20 μg m−3. The daily, weekly and seasonal analysis of the data shows that photochemical air pollution dominates in this urban atmosphere and is strongly influenced by levels of motor traffic and domestic heating system emissions. These measurements were compared with other studies in Spain and Europe. Also, the long path averaged DOAS measurements were compared with in situ observations made in Ciudad Real, from 23rd August 2000 to 25th September 2000, using a mobile air pollution control station. All gas concentrations reported in this paper are below the WHO guidelines and the different thresholds introduced by the European Environmental Legislation.


air monitoring DOAS ozone seasonal variation traffic emissions 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albaladejo, J., Jiménez, E., Notario, A., Cabañas, B. and Martínez, E.: 2002, ‘CH3O yield in the CH3 + O3 reaction using the LP/LIF technique at room temperature’, J. Phys. Chem. 106, 2512–2519.Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson, R.: 1994, ‘Gas-phase tropospheric chemistry of organic compounds’, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, Monograph 2. Google Scholar
  3. Barrefors, G.: 1996, ‘Monitoring of benzene, toluene and p-xylene in urban air with differential optical absorption spectroscopy technique’, Sci. Total. Environ. 190, 287–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brocco, D., Fratarcangeli, R., Lepore, L., Petricca, M. and Ventrone, I.: 1997, ‘Determination of aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air of Rome’, Atmos. Environ., 31 557–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brunekreef, B., Dockery, D. W. and Kryzanowski, M.: 1995, ‘Epidemiologic studies on short-term effects of low levels of major ambient air pollutant components’, Environ. Health. Perspec. 103, 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fenger, J.: 1999, ‘Urban air quality’, Atmos. Environ. 33, 4877–4900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. and Pitts, Jr., J. N.: 2000, Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Gobiet, A., Baumgartner, D., Krobath, T., Maderbacher, R. and Putz, E.: 2000, ‘Urban air pollution monitoring with DOAS considering the local meteorological situation’, Environ. Monitor. Assess. 65, 119–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jimenez, E., Ballesteros, B., Martinez, E. and Albaladejo, J.: 2005, ‘Tropospheric reaction of OH with selected linear ketones: Kinetic studies between 228 and 405 K’, Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 814–820.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Kim, K. and Kim, M.: 2001, ‘Comparison of an open path differential optical absorption spectroscopy system and a conventional in situ monitoring system on the basis of long-term measurements of SO2, NO2 and O3’, Atmos. Environ. 35, 4059–4072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kourtidis, K., Ziomas, I., Zerefos, C., Gousopoulos, A., Balis, D. and Tzoumaka, P.: 2000, ‘Benzene and toluene levels measured with a commercial DOAS system in Thessaloniki, Greece’, Atmos. Environ. 34, 1471–1480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kourtidis, K. A., Ziomas, I., Zerefos, C., Kosmidis, E., Symeonidis, P., Christophilopoulos, E., Karathanassis, S. and Mploutsos, A.: 2002, ‘Benzene, toluene, ozone, NO2 and SO2 measurements in an urban street canyon in Thessaloniki, Greece’, Atmos. Environ. 36, 5355– 5364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lippmann, M.: 1991, ‘Health-effects of tropospheric ozone’, Environ. Sci. Technol. 25, 1954–1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lofgren, L.: 1992, ‘Determination of benzene and toluene in urban air with differential optical absorption spectroscopy’, Intern. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 47, 69–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Martinez, E., Albaladejo, J., Notario, A. and Jimenez, E.: 2000, ‘A study of the atmospheric reaction of CH3S with O3 as a function of temperature’, Atmos. Environ. 34, 5295– 5302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mayer, H.: 1999, ‘Air pollution in cities’, Atmos. Environ. 33, 4029–4037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Palacios, M., Kirchner, F., Martilli, A., Clappier, A., Martin, F. and Rodríguez, M. E.: 2002, ‘Summer ozone episodes in the Greater Madrid area. Analyzing the ozone response to abatement strategies by modelling’, Atmos. Environ. 36, 5323–5333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Plane J. M. C. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: 2005, ‘UV-visible Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS)’, in D.E. Heard (ed.), Analytical Techniques for Atmospheric Measurement. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, In press.Google Scholar
  19. Platt, U.: 1994, ‘Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS)’, in M.W. Sigrist (ed), Air Monitoring by Spectroscopy Techniques. John Wiley, London.Google Scholar
  20. Pujadas, M., Plaza, J., Teres, J., Artinano, B. and Millan, M.: 2000, ‘Passive remote sensing of nitrogen dioxide as a tool for tracking air pollution in urban areas: The Madrid urban pluma, a case of study’, Atmos. Environ. 34, 3041–3056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Saez, M., Ballester, F., Barcelo, M. A., Perez-Hoyos, S., Bellido, J., Tenias, J. M., Ocana, R., Figueiras, A., Arribas, F., Aragones, N., Tobias, A., Cirera, L. and Canada, A.: 2002, ‘A combined analysis of the short-term effects of photochemical air pollution on mortality within the EMECAM project’, Environ. Health. Perspec. 110, 221–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Toll, I. and Baldasano, J. M.: 2000, ‘Modeling of photochemical air pollution in the Barcelona area with highly disaggregated anthropogenic and biogenic emissions’, Atmos. Environ. 34, 3069–3084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Vandaele, A. C., Tsouli, A., Carleer, M. and Colin, R.: 2002, ‘UV Fourier transform measurements of tropospheric O3, NO2, SO2, benzene and toluene’, Environ. Pollut. 116, 193–201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alberto Notario
    • 1
  • Ernesto Martinez
    • 1
  • Jos#x00C9; Albaladejo
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias QuímicasUniversidad de Castilla-La ManchaCiudad RealSpain
  2. 2.Now at School of Environmental SciencesUniversity of East AngliaNorwichUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations