Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 166, Issue 1–4, pp 139–166

Microbial Indicators of Faecal Contamination in Water: A Current Perspective

  • Pam Tallon
  • Brenda Magajna
  • Cassandra Lofranco
  • Kam Tin Leung


It is well documented that faecal contamination of drinking water has caused numerous disease outbreaks. Because the risks of disease outbreaks correlate with the incidence of faecal contamination, faecal bacteria are used as indicators of faecal contamination and hence, the possible presence of disease-causing organisms. However, different microbiological faecal indicators are used in different countries and jurisdictions. Therefore, it is important to understand the potentials and limitations of these indicator organisms before realistically implementing guidelines and regulations to safeguard our water resources. This review considers the history of indicator organisms, the evolution of the analytical methodologies (biochemical and molecular) and addresses the advantages and limitations of current faecal indicator microorganisms.


faecal indicator microorganisms E. coli fecal coliforms total coliforms microbiological water quality 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, M. J. and Edberg, S. C.: 1995, ‘The {public health significance of bacterial indicators} in Drinking Water’, The Royal Society of Chemistry 1999, Special Publication. Atheneaum Press UK.Google Scholar
  2. Alonso, J. L., Soriano, A., Carbajo, O., Amoros, I. and Garelick, H.: 1999, ‘Comparison and {recovery of} Escherichia coli and {thermotolerant coliforms in water with a chromogenic medium incubated at} 41 and 44.5 C’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 3746–3749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. American Public Health Association: 1992, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 19th ed, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  4. American Public Health Association: 1998, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th ed, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  5. Archibald, F.: 2000, ‘The presence of coliform bacteria in Canadian pulp and paper mill water systems~– a cause for concern?’, Water Qual. Res. J. Canada 35, 1–22.Google Scholar
  6. Ashbolt, N. J., Grabow, W. O. and Snozzi, M.: 2001, ‘Indicators of {microbial water quality}’, in L. Fewtrell and J. Bartram (eds), Water Quality – Guidelines, Standards and Health: Assessment of Risk and Risk Management for Water-Related Infectious Disease, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  7. Baggi, F., Demarta, A. and Peduzzi, R.: 2001, ‘Persistence of viral pathogens and bacteriophages during sewage treatment: Lack of correlation with indicator bacteria’, Res. Microbiol. 152(8), 743–751.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baudart, J., Coallier, J., Laurent, P. and Prévost, M.: 2002, ‘Rapid and {sensitive enumeration of viable diluted cells of members of the family} Enterobacteriaceae in {freshwater and drinking water}’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68, 5057–5063.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Baudizšová, D.: 1997, ‘Evaluation of Escherichia coli as the {main indicator of faecal pollution}’, Wat. Sci. Tech. 35, 333–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bej, A. K., McCarty, S. C. and Atlas, R. M.: 1991, ‘Detection of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli by multiplex polymerase chain reaction: Comparison with defined substrate and plating methods for water quality monitoring’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57, 2429–2432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bej, A. K., Steffan, R. J., DiCesare, J., Haff, L. and Atlas, R. M.: 1990, ‘Detection of coliform bacteria in water by polymerase chain reaction and gene probes’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 307– 314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Byamukama, D, Kansiime, F., Mach, R. L. and Farnleitner, L. H.: 2000, ‘Determination of Escherichia coli contamination with {chromocult coliform agar showed a high level of discrimination efficiency for differing fecal pollution levels in tropical waters of} Kampala, Uganda’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66, 864–868.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Camper, A. K., McFeters, G. A., Characklis, W. G. and Jones, W. L.: 1991, ‘Growth kinetics of coliform bacteria under conditions relevant to drinking-water distribution systems’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57, 2233–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Carrillo, M., Estrada, E. and Hazen, T. C.: 1985, ‘Survival and enumeration of the fecal indicators Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Escherichia coli in tropical rain forest watershed’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50, 468–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Carson, C. A., Shear, B. L., Ellersieck, M. R. and Asfaw, A.: 2001, ‘Identification of fecal Escherichia coli from humans and animals by ribotyping’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67, 1503–1507.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chang, H. T., Rittmann, B. E., Amar, D., Heim, R., Ehlinger, O. and Lesty, Y.: 1991, ‘Biofilm detachment mechanisms in a liquid-fluidized bed’, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 38, 499–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chang, H. T. and Rittmann, B. E.: 1988, ‘Comparative study of biofilm shear loss on different adsorptive media’, J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 60, 362–368.Google Scholar
  18. Charoenca, N. and Fujioka, R. S.: 1991, ‘Assessment of Staphylococcus bacteria in Hawaii’s marine recreational waters’, Water Sci. Technol. 27, 283–289.Google Scholar
  19. Ciebin, B. W., Brodsky, M. H., Eddiington, R., Horsnell, G., Choney, A., Palmateer, G., Ley, A., Joshi, R. and Shears, G.: 1995, ‘Comparative {evaluation of modified} m-FC and m-TEC {media for membrane filter enumeration of} Escherichia coli in water’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61, 3940–3942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Colbourne, J. S.: 1985, ‘Materials usage and their effects on the microbiological quality of water supplies’, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 59, 47–60.Google Scholar
  21. Conboy, M. J. and Goss, M. J.: 2001, ‘Identification of an {assemblage of indicator organisms to assess timing and source of bacterial contamination in groundwater}’, Water Air and Soil Pollution 129, 101–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Craun, G. F.: 1986, ‘Waterborne giardiasis in the United States 1965–1984’, Lancet 2, 513–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Delabre, K., Dile, V., De Roubin, M. R., Gatel, D., Poty, F. and Cavard, J.: 2001, ‘New analytical tools for distribution system surveillance’, Proceedings of AWWA-Annual Conference, American Water Works Association, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  24. Dick, L. K. and Field, K. G.: 2003, ‘(in review) A quantitative PCR assay for Bacteroidetes 16S rDNA provides a rapid estimate of fecal pollution in water’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol.Google Scholar
  25. Dogan-Halkman, H. B., Çakir, İ., Keven, F., Worobo, R. and Halkman, A. K.: 2003, ‘Relationship among fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in various food’, European Food Research and Technology 216(4), 331–334.Google Scholar
  26. Dombek, P. E., Johnson, L. K., Zimmerley, S. T. and Sadowsky, M. J.: 2000, ‘Use of repetitive DNA sequences and the PCR to differentiate Escherichia coli isolates from human and animal sources’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66, 2572–2577.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Doolittle, M. M., Cooney, J. J. and Caldwell, D. E.: 1996, ‘Tracing the interaction of bacteriophage with bacterial biofilms using fluorescent and chromogenic probes’, J. Ind. Microbiol. 16, 331–341.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dufour, P.: 1977, Escherichia coli: The Fecal Coliform. Spec. Tech. Publ. 65, pp. 48–58. Philadelphia: Am. Soc. Test. Mater.Google Scholar
  29. Dukan, S., Levi, Y., Piriou, P., Guyon F. and Villon P.: 1996, ‘Dynamic modelling of bacterial growth in drinking-water networks’, Water Res. 30(9), 1991–2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. DuPont, H. L., Chappell, C. L., Sterling, C. R., Okhuysen, P. C., Rose, J. B. and Jakubowski, W.: 1995, ‘Infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum for adult humans’, N. Engl. J. Med. 332, 855–859.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Edberg, S. C., Allen, M. J., Smith, D. B. and Kriz, N. J.: 1990, ‘Enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from source water by the defined substrate technology’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 366–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Edberg, S. C., Allen, M. J., Smith, D. B. and The National Collaborative Study: 1988, ‘National field evaluation of a defined substrate method for the simultaneous enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking water: Comparison with the standard multiple tube fermentation method’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54, 1595–1601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Edberg, S. C., Leclerc, H. and Robertson, J.: 1997, ‘Natural protection of spring and well drinking water against surface microbial contamination. II. Indicators and monitoring parameters for parasites’, Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 23, 179–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Edberg, S. C., Rice, E. W., Karlin, R. J. and Allen, M. J.: 2000, ‘Escherichia coli: The best biological drinking water indicator for public health protection’, J. Appl. Microbiol. Suppl. 88, 106S–116S.Google Scholar
  35. Environmental Health Directorate – Health Protection Branch: 1978, Recreational Water Quality, Published by Authority of the Minister of National Health and Welfare.Google Scholar
  36. European Economic Community: 1998, ‘Council Directive 98/83/EC relating to the quality of water intended for human consumption’, Off. J. Eur. Communities L330, 32–54.Google Scholar
  37. Fayer, R., Morgan, U. and Upton, S. J.: 2000, ‘Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium: transmission, detection and identification’, International Journal for Parasitology 30, 1305–1322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Federal-Provincial Working Group on Recreational Water Quality of the Federal-Provincial Advisory Committee on Environmental and Occupational Health: 1992, ‘Guidelines for Canadian Recreational Water Quality’, Minister of National Health and Welfare.Google Scholar
  39. Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water: 2002, ‘Bacteriological Quality. Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality – Supporting Documents, Water Quality and Health Bureau of the Safe Environments Programme of Health Canada’, 2003-01–07.Google Scholar
  40. Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water: April 2002, ‘Summary of Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality. Safe Environments Programme of Health Canada’.Google Scholar
  41. Feng, P., Lum, R. and Chang, G. W.: 1991, ‘Identification of uidA gene sequences in β -D-glucuronidase-negative Escherichia coli’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57, 320–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Feng, P. C. S. and Hartman, P. A.: 1982, ‘Fluorogenic assays for immediate confirmation of Escherichia coli’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43, 1320–1329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Finegold, S. M., Sutter, V. L. and Mathison, G. E.: 1983, ‘Normal indigenous intestinal flora’, in D. J. Hentges (ed), Human Intestinal Microflora in Health and Disease’, 1:3–31. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  44. Formiga-Cruz, M., Allard, A. K., Conden-Hansson, A. C., Henshilwood, K., Henroth, B. E., Jofre, J., Lees, D. N., Lucena, F., Papapetropoulou, M., Rangdale, R. E., Tsibouxi, A., Vantarakis, A. and Girones, R.: 2003, ‘Evaluation of {potential indicators of viral contamination in shellfish and their applicability to diverse geographical areas}’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69, 1556– 1563.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fricker, E. J. and Fricker, C. R.: 1994, ‘Application of the polymerase chain reaction to the identification of Escherichia coli and coliforms in water’, Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 19, 44–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Fricker, E. J. and Fricker, C. R.: 1996, ‘Use of two presence/absence systems for the detection of E.~coli and coliforms from water’, Water Res. 30, 2226–2228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gauthier, F. and Archibald, F.: 2001, ‘The Ecology of “{faecal indicator” bacteria commonly found in pulp and paper mill water systems}’, Wat. Res. 35, 2207–2218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gavini, F., Leclerc, H. and Mossel, D. A. A.: 1985, ‘Enterobacteriaceae of the “coliform group” in drinking water: Identification and worldwide distribution’, Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 6, 312–318.Google Scholar
  49. Geldreich, E. E. and Kenner, B. A.: 1969, ‘Concepts of fecal streptococci in stream pollution’, J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 41, R352–R355.Google Scholar
  50. Gerba, C. P. and Rose, J. B.: 1990, ‘Viruses in {source and drinking water}’, in G. A. McFeters (ed), Drinking-Water Microbiology: Progress and Recent Developments, New York: Springer-Verlag., pp. 380–396.Google Scholar
  51. Gleeson, C. and Gray, N.: 1997, The Coliform Index and Waterborne Disease, London: E {&} FN Spon. 194 pp.Google Scholar
  52. Godfree, A. F., Kay, D. and Wyer, M. D.: 1997, ‘Faecal streptococci as indicators of faecal contamination in water’, Journal of Applied Microbiology Symposium Supplement 110S–119S.Google Scholar
  53. Grabow, W. O., Taylor, M. B. and de Villiers, J. C.: 2001, ‘New {methods for the detection of viruses}: Call f{or review of drinking water quality guidelines}’, Water Sci Technol. 43(12), 1–8.Google Scholar
  54. Guan, S., Xu, R., Chen, S., Odumeru, J. and Gyles, C.: 2002, ‘Development of a procedure for discriminating among Escherichia coli isolates from animal and human sources’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68, 2690–2698.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Haas, C. N. and Rose, J. B.: 1994, ‘Reconciliation of microbial risk models and outbreak epidemiology: The case of the Milwaukee outbreak’, Proc. Water Works Assoc. pp. 517–23. Denver: Am. Water Works Assoc.Google Scholar
  56. Hardalo, C. and Edberg, S. C.: 1997, ‘Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Assessment of risk from drinking water’, Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 23, 47–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Harwood, V. J., Whitlock, J. and Withington, V.: 2000, ‘Classification of antibiotic resistance patterns of indicator bacteria by discriminant analysis: Use in predicting the source of fecal contamination in subtropical waters’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66, 3698–3704.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hermansson, M. and Marshall, K. C.: 1985, ‘Utilization of surface localized substrate by non-adhesive marine bacteria’, Microb. Ecol. 11, 91–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hrudey, S. E., Huck, P. M., Payment, P., Gilham, R. W. and Hrudey, E. J.: 2002, ‘Walkerton: Lessons learned in comparison with waterborne outbreaks in the developed world’, J. Environ. Eng. Sci. 1, 397–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Huang, S. W., Chang, C. H., Tai, T. F. and Chang, T. C.: 1997, ‘Comparison of the β-Glucuronidase Assay and the Conventional Method for Identification of Escherichia coli on {eosin-methylene blue agar}’, Journal of Food Protection 60, 6–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hübner, I., Steinmetz, I., Obst, U., Giebel, D. and Bitter-Suermann, D.: 1992, ‘Rapid determination of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in drinking water by an immunological assay using a monoclonal antibody against enterobacterial common antigen’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 3187–3191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Iqbal, S., Robinson, J., Deere, D., Saunders, J. R., Edwards, C. and Porter, J.: 1997, ‘Efficiency of the polymerase chain reaction amplification of the uid gene for detection of Escherichia coli in contaminated water’, Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 24, 498–502.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Jimenez, L., Muniz, I., Toranzos, G. A. and Hazen, T. C.: 1989, ‘Survival and activity of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli in tropical freshwater’, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 67, 61–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Juck, D., Ingram, J., Prévost, M., Coallier, J. and Greer, C.: 1996, ‘Nested PCR protocol for the rapid detection of Escherichia coli in potable water’, Can. J. Microbiol. 42, 862–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kefford, B., Kjelleberg, S. and Marshall, K. C.: 1982, ‘Bacterial scavenging: Utilization of fatty acids localized at a solid-liquid interface’, Arch. Microbiol. 133, 257–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kistemann, T., Claβ en, T., Koch, C., Dangendorf, F., Fischeder, R., Gebel, J., Vacacta, V. and Exner, M.: 2002, ‘Microbial {laod of drinking water reservoir tributaries during extreme rainfall and runoff}’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68, 2188–2197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kornacki, J. L. and Johnson, J. L.: 2001, ‘Enterobacteriaceae, Coliforms and Escherichia coli as {quality and safety indicators}’, in F. Downs (ed), Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods, APHA. Washington DC.Google Scholar
  68. Koster, W., Egli, T., Ashbolt, N., Botzenhart, K., Burlion, N., Endo, T., Grimont, P., Guillot, E., Mabilat, C., Newport, L., Niemi, M., Payment, P., Prescott, A., Renaud, P. and Rust, A.: 2003, ‘Analytical methods for microbiological water quality testing’, in Assessing Microbial Safety of Drinking Water: Improving Approaches and Methods, OECD/WHO Drinking Water Quality Series, IWA Publishing, London, pp. 237–295.Google Scholar
  69. Lebaron, P., Catala, P., Fajon, C., Joux, F., Baudart, J. and Bernard, L.: 1997, ‘A new sensitive, whole-cell hybridization technique for detection of bacteria involving a biotinylated oligunucleotide probe targeting rRNA and tyramide signal amplification’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 3274–3278.Google Scholar
  70. LeChevallier, M. W., Cawthon, C. D. and Lee, R. G.: 1988, ‘Factors promoting survival of bacteria in chlorinated water supplies’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54, 649–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. LeChevallier, M. W.: 1990, ‘Coliform regrowth in drinking water: A review. Res. Technol’, J. Am. Water. Works Assoc. 82, 74–86.Google Scholar
  72. Leclerc, H. and Moriamez, J. C.: 1980, ‘Étude quantitative de la flore fécale de l’adulte et du nourrisson alimenté artificiellement’, Pathol. Biol. 28(4), 217–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Leclerc, H., Mossel, D. A., Edberg, S. C. and Struijk, C. B.: 2001, ‘Advances in the {bacteriology of the coliform group}: Their {suitability as markers of microbial water safety}’, Annual Reviews in Microbiology 55, 201–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Leclercq, A., Wanegue, C. and Baylac, P.: 2002, ‘Comparison of {fecal coliform agar and violet red bile lactose agar for fecal coliform enumeration in foods}’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68, 1631– 1638.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lemarchand, K., Masson, L. and Brousseau, R.: 2004, ‘Molecular biology and DNA microarray technology for microbial quality monitoring of water’, Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 30, 145– 172.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Leung, K. T., Mackereth, R., Tien, Y. C. and Topp, E.: 2004, ‘A comparison of AFLP and ERIC-PCR analyses for discriminating Escherichia coli from cattle, pig and human’, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 47, 111–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Levasseur, S., Husson, M. O., Leitz, R., Merlin, F., Laurent, F., Peladan, F., Drocourt, J. L., Leclerc, H. and Van Hoegaerden, M.: 1992, ‘Rapid detection of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae by a monoclonal antibody’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58, 1524–1529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lopez-Torres, A. J., Hazen, T. C. and Toranzos, G. A.: 1987, ‘Distribution and in situ survival and activity of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in tropical rain forest watershed’, Curr. Microbiol. 15, 213–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lund, V.: 1996, ‘Evaluation of E.~coli as an indicator for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica in chlorinated and untreated oligotrophic lake water’, Water Res. 30, 1528–1534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Manja, E. S., Maurya, M. S. and Rao, D. M.: 1982, ‘A simple field test for the detection of fecal pollution in drinking water’, Bull. WHO, 60, 797–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Marshall, K. C. and Blainey, B. L.: 1991, ‘Role of bacterial adhesion in biofilm formation and biocorrosion’, in H. C. Flemming (ed), Biofouling and Biocorrosion in Industrial Water Systems, Berlin: Springer-Verlag., pp. 29–46.Google Scholar
  82. Marshall, K. C.: 1988, ‘Adhesion and growth of bacteria at surfaces in oligotrophic habitats’, Can. J. Microbiol. 34, 503–506.Google Scholar
  83. Marshall, M. M., Naumovitz, D., Ortega, Y. and Sterling, C. R.: 1997, ‘Waterborne protozoan pathogens’, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10, 67–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Martins, M. T., Rivera, I. G., Clark, D. L., Stewart, M. H., Wolfe, R. L. and Olson, B. H.: 1993, ‘Distribution of uidA gene sequences in Escherichia coli isolates in water sources and comparison with the expression of beta-glucuronidase activity in 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide media’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59(7), 2271–2276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. McLellan, S. L., Daniels, A. D. and Salmore, A. K.: 2001, ‘Clonal {populations of thermotolerant enterobacteriaceae in recreational water and their interference with fecal} Escherichia coli counts’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67, 4934–4938.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Min, J. and Baeumner: 2001, ‘Highly {sensitive and specific detection of viable} Escherichia coli in {drinking water}’, Analytical Biochemistry. 303, 186–193.Google Scholar
  87. Morris, R. D., Naumova, E. N. and Griffiths, J. K.: 1998, ‘Did Milwaukee experience waterborne cryptosporidiosis before the large outbreak in 1993?’, Epidemiology 9, 264–270.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Noble, R. T. and Fuhrman, J. A.: 2001, ‘Enteroviruses detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction from the coastal waters of Santa Monica Bay, California: Low correlation to bacterial indicator levels’, Hydrobiologia 460(1), 175–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Norton, C. D. and LeCevallier, M. W.: 2000, ‘A {pilot study of bacteriological population changes through potable water treatment and distribution}’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66, 268– 276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Obst, U., Hübner, I., Wecker, M. and Bitter-Suermann, D.: 1989, ‘Immunological method using monoclonal antibodies to detect Enterobacteriaceae in drinking water’, Aqua 38, 136–142.Google Scholar
  91. OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development): 2003, ‘Assessing Microbial Safety of Drinking Water: Improving Approaches and Methods’, OECD/WHO Drinking Water Quality Series, IWA Publishing, London.Google Scholar
  92. Owens, J. H., Miltner, R. J., Rice, E. W., Johnson, C. H., Dahling, D. R., Schaefer, F. W. and Shukairy, H. M.: 2000, ‘Pilot-scale ozone inactivation of Cryptosporidium and other microorganisms in natural water’, Ozone Science {&} Engineering 22(5), 501–517.Google Scholar
  93. Payment, P. and Franco, E.: 1993, ‘Clostridium perfringens and somatic coliphages as indicators of the efficiency of drinking water treatment for viruses and protozoan cysts’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 2418–2424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Payment, P., Richardson, L., Siemiatycki, J., Dewar, R., Edwardes, M. and Franco, E.: 1991a, ‘A randomized trial to evaluate the risk of gastrointestinal disease due to consumption of drinking water meeting current microbiological standards’, Am. J. Public Health 81, 703–708.Google Scholar
  95. Payment, P.: 1999, ‘Poor efficacy of residual chlorine disinfectant in drinking water to inactivate waterborne pathogens in distribution systems’, Canadian Journal of Microbiology 45(9), 709–715.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Payment, P., Plante, R. and Cejka, P.: 2001, ‘Removal of indicator bacteria, human enteric viruses, Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts at a large wastewater primary treatment facility’, Can. J. Microbiol. 47(3), 188–193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Petit, M., George, I. and Servais, P.: 2000, ‘Survival of Escherichia coli in freshwater: β -D-Glucoronidase activity measurements and characterization of cellular states’, Canadian Journal of Microbiology 46, 679–684.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Peyton, B. M. and Characklis, W. G.: 1992, ‘Kinetics of biofilm detachment’, Water Sci. Technol. 26, 1995–1998.Google Scholar
  99. Power, K. and Marshall, K. C.: 1988, ‘Cellular growth and reproduction of marine bacteria on surface-bound substrate’, Biofouling 1, 163–74.Google Scholar
  100. Prescott, A. M. and Fricker, C. R.: 1999, ‘Use of PNA oligonucleotides for the in situ detection of Escherichia coli in water’, Mol. Cell. Probes 13, 261–268.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Productivity Commission: 2000, Arrangements for Setting Drinking Water Standards, International Benchmarking, AusInfo, Canberra.Google Scholar
  102. Quignon, F., Kiene, L., Levi, Y., Sardin, M. and Schwartzbrod, L.: 1997, ‘Virus behaviour within a distribution system’, Water Sci. Technol. 35, 311–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rajala, R. L. and Heinonen-Tanski, H.: 1998, ‘Survival and {transfer of faecal indicator organisms of wastewater effluents in receiving lake waters}’, Wat. Sci. Tech. 38(12), 191–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Regnault, B., Martin-Delautre, S., Lejay-Collin, M., Lefèvre, M. and Grimont, P. A. D.: 2000, ‘Oligonucleotide probe for the visualization of Escherichia coli/Escherichia fergusonii cells by in situ hybridization: Specificity and potential application’, Res. Microbiol. 151, 521– 533.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Ridgeway, H. F. and Olson, B. H.: 1981, ‘Scanning electron microscope evidence for bacterial colonization of a drinking-water distribution system’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41, 274–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Rippey, S. R. and Cabelli, V. J.: 1989, ‘Use of thermotolerant Aeromonas group for the trophic classification of freshwater’, Water Res. 23, 1107–1114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rompré, A., Servais, P., Baudart, J., de-Roubin, M. and Laurent, P.: 2002, ‘Detection and enumeration of coliforms in drinking water: Current methods and emerging approaches’, Journal of Microbiological Methods 49(1), 31–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Salyers, A. and Whitt, D.: 2002, Bacterial Pathogenesis: A Molecular Approach. 2nd Edn’, ASM Press Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  109. Seyfried, P. and Harris, E.: 1990, ‘Bacteriological Characterization of Feces and Source Differentiation’, Water Resources Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment. Queen’s Printer for Ontario.Google Scholar
  110. Skraber, S., Gantzer, C., Maul, A. and Schwartzbrod, L.: 2002, ‘Fates of bacteriophages and bacterial indicators in the Moselle river (France)’, Water Res. 36(14), 3629–3637.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Sorenson, D. L., Eberl, S. G. and Diksa, R. A.: 1989, ‘Clostridium perfringens as a point source indicator in non-point-polluted streams’, Wat. Res. 23, 191–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Stevens, M., Ashbolt, N. and Cunliffe, D.: 2001, Microbial Indicators of Water Quality – An NHMRC Discussion Paper.Google Scholar
  113. Sueiro, R. A., Araujo, M., Santos, C. J., Gomez, M. J. and Garrido, M. J.: 2001, ‘Evaluation of Coli-ID and MUG Plus media for recovering Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria from groundwater samples’, Water Sci Technol. 43(12), 213–216.Google Scholar
  114. Szewzyk, U., Manz, W., Amann, R., Schleifer, K. H. and Stenström, T. A.: 1994, ‘Growth and in situ detection of a pathogenic Escherichia coli in biofilms of a heterotrophic water-bacterium by use of 16S- and 23S-rRNA-directed fluorescent oligonucleotide probes’, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 13, 169–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Szewzyk, U. and Schink, B.: 1987, ‘Surface colonization by and life cycle of Pelobacter acidigallici studied in a continuous-flow microchamber’, J. Gen. Microbiol. 134, 183–190.Google Scholar
  116. Szwezyk, U., Szewzyk, R., Manz, W. and Schleifer, K. H.: 2000, ‘Microbiological {safety of drinking water}’, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54, 81–127.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Tani, K., Kurokawa, K. and Nasu, M.: 1998, ‘Development of a direct in situ PCR method for detection of specific bacteria in natural environments’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64, 1536–1540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Tenover, F. C., Arbeit, R. D. and Goering, R. V.: 1997, ‘How to select and interpret molecular strain typing methods for epidemiological studies of bacterial infections: A review for healthcare epidemiologists’, Infection control and hospital epidemiology 18, 426–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Toranzos, G. A., McFeters, G. A. and Borrego, J. J.: 2002, ‘Detection of microorganisms in environmental freshwaters and drinking waters’, in C. J. Hurst, R. L. Crawford, G. R. Knudsen, M. J. McInerney and L. D. Stetzenbach (eds), Manual of Environmental Microbiology, 2nd ed, ASM Press, Washington, D. C., pp. 205–219.Google Scholar
  120. Tortorello, M. L. and Reineke, K. F.: 2000, ‘Direct Enumeration of Escherichia coli and enteric bacteria in water, beverages and sprouts by 16S rRNA in situ hybridization’, Food Microbiology 17, 305–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tryland, I. and Fiksdal, L.: 1998, ‘Enzyme Characteristics of the β -D-Galactosidase- and β -D-Glucoronidase-Positive Bacteria and Their Interference in Rapid Methods for Detection of Waterborne Coliforms and Escherichia coli’, Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64, 1018–1023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Van Poucke, S. O. and Nelis, H. J.: 2000a, ‘Rapid detection of fluorescent and chemiluminescent total coliforms and Escherichia coli on membrane filters’, Journal of Microbiological Methods 42(3), 233–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Van Poucke, S. O. and Nelis, H. J.: 2000b, ‘A 210-min solid phase cytometry test for the enumeration of Escherichia coli in drinking water’, J. Appl. Microbiol. 89, 390–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Van Pouke, S. O. and Nelis, H. J.: 1997, ‘Limitations of Highly Sensitive Enzymatic Presence-Absence Tests for Detection of Waterborne Coliforms and Escherichia coli’, Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63, 771–774.Google Scholar
  125. Wadowsky, R. M. and Yee, R. B.: 1983, ‘Satellite growth of Legionella pneumophila with an environmental isolate of Flavobacterium breve’, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 46, 1447–1449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Yu, H.: 1998, ‘Comparative studies of magnetic particle-based solid phase fluorogenic and electrochemiluminescent immunoassay’, Journal of Immunological Methods 218, 1–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Zaccone, R., Crisafi, E. and Caruso, G.: 1995, ‘Evaluation of fecal pollution in coastal Italian waters by immunofluorescence’, Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 9, 79–85.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pam Tallon
    • 1
  • Brenda Magajna
    • 1
  • Cassandra Lofranco
    • 2
  • Kam Tin Leung
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyLakehead UniversityThunder BayCanada
  2. 2.Ontario Ministry of the EnvironmentStandards Development BranchEtobicokeCanada

Personalised recommendations