Due to potential problems associated with their toxicities, concentration of heavy metals in soils is of great environmental concern. To evaluate Cd content, its spatial pattern, and availability in the surface soils of agricultural, industrial and urban regions of Isfahan, central Iran, we collected 255 topsoil samples (0–20 cm) from the nodes of an irregular grid in a study area of 6800 km2. In the soil samples we measured total and DTPA-extractable Cd concentrations, soil pH, organic mater (OM), clay content, soil salinity, and chloride concentration. The total Cd concentration in 90% of the samples exceeded the suggested Swiss thresholds of 0.8 mg kg−1. Landuse had a significant effect on total concentration of Cd in the soil but had no effect on DTPA-extractable Cd. High values of total Cd were found in industrial and urban areas whereas low values occurred in uncultivated lands. The correlation analysis revealed that soil salinity alone explained 36% of the Cd variation in the entire study area. The correlation was particularly strong in uncultivated areas (R2 = 0.70). Spatial analysis of available Cd using indicator kriging and soil salinity showed a spatial co-occurrence of these two variables.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Andersen, M. K., Refsgaard, A., Raulund-Rasmussen, K., Strobel, B. W. and Hansen, H. C. B.: 2002, ‘Content, distribution, and solubility of cadmium in arable and forest soils’, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66, 1829–1835.
Atteia, O., Dubois, J. P. and Webster, R.: 1994, ‘Geostatistical analysis of soil contamination in the Swiss Jura’, Environ. Pollut. 86, 315–327.
Cao, H. F., Chang, A. C. and Page, A. L.: 1984, ‘Heavy metal contents of sludge-treated soils as determined by three extraction procedures’, J. Environ. Qual. 13, 632–634.
Cattle, A. J., McBratney, A. B. and Minasny, B.: 2002, ‘Kriging methodes evaluation for assessing the spatial distribution of Urban soil lead contamination’, J. Environ. Qual. 319, 1576–1588.
Chelopecka, A., Bacon, J. R., Wilson, M. J. and Kay, J.: 1996, ‘Forms of cadmium, lead, and zinc in contaminated soils from southwest Poland’, J. Environ. Qual. 25, 69–79.
Chiles, J. P. and Delfiner, P.: 1999, Geostatistics Modeling Spatial Uncertainty, John Willey, New York, USA.
Deutsch, C. V. and Journel, A. G.: 1998, GSLIB: Geostatistical Software Library and User’s Guide, 2nd edn., Oxford University Press, New York, p. 369.
FOEFL (Swiss Federal Office of Environment, Forest and Landscape): 1998, Commentary on the Ordinance Relating to Pollutants in Soils, VBBo of July 1, 1998, Bern.
Goovaerts, P.: 1997, Geostatistics for Natural Resources Evaluation, Oxford University Press, New York, p. 483.
Juang, K. W., Lee, D. Y. and Ellsworth, T. R.: 2001, ‘Using rank-order geostatistics for spatial interpolation of highly skewed data in heavy metal contaminated site’, J. Environ. Qual. 30, 894–930.
Kabata-Pendias, A. and Pendias, H.: 2001, Trace Elements in Soils and Plants, 3rd edn., CRC Press, USA, p. 413.
Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. H., Shariatmadari, H. and Parker, D.: 2002, Effect of Salinity on Phytoavailability of Cadmium and Zinc, 17 International Soil Congress, World Congress of Soil Science Bankok, Thailand, 4–22 August 2002.
Krishnamurti, G. S. R. and Naidu, R.: 2003, ‘Solid equilibria of cadmium in soils’, Geoderma 113, 17–30.
Lindsay, W. L. and Norvell, W. A.: 1978, ‘Development of a DTPA test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper’, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42, 421–428.
McBride, M. B., Sauve, S. and Hendershot, W.: 1997, ‘Solubility control of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in contaminated soil’, Eur. J. Soil Sci. 48, 337–346.
McLaughin, M. L., Palmer, L. T., Tiller, K. G., Beech, T. A. and Smart, M. K.: 1994, ‘Increased soil salinity causes elevated cadmium concentration in field-grown potato tubers’, J. Environ. Qual. 23, 1013–1018.
Meuli, R., Schulin, R. and Webster, R.: 1998, ‘Experience with the replication of regional survey of soil pollution’, Environ. Pollut. 101, 311–320.
Norvell, W. A., Wu, J., Hopkins, D. G. and Welch, R. M.: 2000, ‘Association of cadmium in durum wheat grain with soil chloride and chelate-extractable soil cadmium’, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 64, 2162–2168.
Pais, I. J. and Jones, B.: 1997, The Handbook of Trace Elements, Lucie Press, Boca Raton, Florida, p. 223.
Renella, G., Adamo, P., Bianco, M. R., Landi, L., Violante, P. and Nannipieri, P.: 2004, ‘Availability and speciation of cadmium added to a calcareous soil under various managements’, Eur. J. Soil Sci. 55, 123–133.
Ross, S. M.: 1994, Toxic Metals in Soil–Plant Systems, John Wiley, UK.
Tiller, K. G., McLaughlin, M. J. and Roberts, A. H. C.: 1999, ‘Environmental impacts of heavy metal in agroecosystems and amelioration strategies in Oceania’, in P.M. Huang and I.K. Iskander (eds), Soils and Goundwater Pollution and Remediation, Lewis, USA.
Vairavamurthy, M. A., Goldenberg, W. S., Shi, O. Y. and Khalid, S.: 2000, ‘The interaction of hydrophilic thiols with cadmium: Investigation with a simple model, 3-mercaptopropionic acid’, Marine Chem. 70(1–3), 181–189.
Van Meirvenne, M. and Goovaerts, P.: 2001, ‘Evaluating the probability of exceeding a site specific soil cadmium contamination threshold’, Geoderma 102, 63–88.
Wagner, G. J.: 1993, ‘Accumulation of cadmium in crop plants and its consequences to human health’, Adv. Agron. 51, 173–212.
Wang, H. K.: 1999, ‘Heavy metal pollution in soils and its remedial measures and restoration in Mainland China’, in P.M. Huang and I.K. Iskander (eds), Soils and Groundwater Pollution and Remediation, Lewis, USA.
Webster, R. and Oliver, M.: 2000, Geostatistics for Environmental Scientists, John Wiley, West Sussex, UK.
Weggler, K., McLaughlin, M. J. and Graham, R. D.: 2004, ‘Effect of chloride in soil solution and the plant availability of biosolid-borne cadmium’, J. Environ. Qual. 33, 496–504.
Wu, J., Norvell, W. A., Hopkins, D. G. and Welch, R. M.: 2002, ‘Spatial variability of grain cadmium and soil characteristics in a durum wheat field’, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66, 268–275.
Yong, R.: 2001, Geoenvironmental Engineering, Contaminated Soils, Pollutant Fate and Mitigation, CRC Press, LLC, USA.
About this article
Cite this article
Amini, M., Khademi, H., Afyuni, M. et al. Variability of Available Cadmium in Relation to Soil Properties and Landuse in an Arid Region in Central Iran. Water Air Soil Pollut 162, 205–218 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-005-6273-4
- indicator kriging
- soil pollution
- spatial variation