A New Risk Assessment System Based on Set Pair Analysis – Variable Fuzzy Sets for Underground Reservoirs

  • Min Li
  • Tianyuan ZhengEmail author
  • Jian Zhang
  • Yunhai Fang
  • Jiang Liu
  • Xilai ZhengEmail author
  • Hui Peng


The effects of underground reservoir operation have important scientific significance and application value for the development, utilisation, and management of groundwater resources. Based on the investigation of hydrogeological conditions and operation management of the Dagu River underground reservoir, a new assessment system for the operation effects of the underground reservoir was established. In this study, water quantity, water quality, pollution source, vulnerability, and economic benefits of the underground reservoir were considered assessment indexes.. And we used a coupled set pair analysis and variable fuzzy set (SPA-VFS) to evaluate the Dagu Rive underground reservoir. The assessment results show that the assessment indexes of groundwater exploitation rate, groundwater exploitation modulus, wastewater treatment rate, and economic benefit ratio are good, but the water quality of the reservoir area is usually poor, the fertilizer application rate is high, and the aquifer vulnerability is weak.


Underground reservoir Operation effect Assessment system Set pair analysis Variable fuzzy set SPA-VFS 



The authors would like to thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China-Shandong Joint Fund (grant number U1806210) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 41731280) for funding this project.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Environmental Science and EngineeringOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecological EducationOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina
  3. 3.College of EngineeringOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina
  4. 4.Limited company of Qingdao Huayi environmental protection technologyQingdaoChina
  5. 5.Shandong Hydrology BureauJinanChina

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