Water Resources Management

, Volume 33, Issue 10, pp 3547–3562 | Cite as

Comprehensive Assessment and Rechecking of Rainfall Threshold for Flash Floods Based on the Disaster Information

  • Wenlin Yuan
  • Lei FuEmail author
  • Qianyu Gao
  • Fang WanEmail author


The rainfall threshold assessment of flash floods normally determines the rationality of a single warning duration for a disaster prevention object, which cannot precisely ascertain the overall reliability of the critical rainfall of disaster prevention object. Besides, the complex topographic and geomorphological characteristics of hilly areas increase the uncertainty of rainfall threshold calculation. This study aims to explore the comprehensive assessment and recheck method for rainfall threshold of flash floods, primarily considering the impact of disaster information. We used the time-interval characteristic rainfall and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluate the rationality discriminant factor and the weight of warning durations, as well as determined the comprehensive rationality index (CRI) and assessed and rechecked the overall rationality of the rainfall threshold of disaster prevention objects. Then, the time-interval characteristic rainfall assessment method was used to validate the rationality of the rainfall threshold rechecked value against information from a historical actual flash flood. We found that (1) the CRI could effectively distinguish the overall rationality of the rainfall threshold of disaster prevention objects; (2) the CRI of critical rainfall rechecked value increased by about 40%, and the qualified rate of historical flood verification reached 75%, which corroborated more with the actual situation of the study area. Thus, this study elucidates the comprehensive assessment and recheck method and enhancing the rainfall threshold rationality assessment system, offering a valuable reference for the analysis and calculation of early warning indicators of a flash flood.


Assessment and recheck Comprehensive rationality index Disaster information Flash flood Rainfall threshold 



Relevant research content in this paper was supported by the Natural Sciences Foundation of China (51779229), and the Henan Province Young Backbone Teachers Training Program Project (2016GGJS-004). The authors wish to express deep thanks to the anonymous reviewers for their review.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest



  1. Cheng GY, Yuan YM (2005) Research on critical precipitation amount computation method of mountain torrential flood disaster[J]. Yangtze River 36(12):40–43Google Scholar
  2. Candidate DS, Student JMU, Director RK (2013) Evaluation of operational National Weather Service Gridded Flash Flood Guidance over the Arkansas Red River Basin[J]. Jawra J Am Water Resour Assoc 49(6):1296–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheng WS (2013) A review of rainfall threshold for triggering flash floods [J]. Adv Water Sci 24(6):901–908Google Scholar
  4. Chen YB, Yang WF, Xu YS (2015) Study of dynamic critical precipitation drafted method under different soil moisture content level [J]. Yangtze River 12:21–26Google Scholar
  5. Costache R (2019) Flash-flood potential assessment in the upper and middle sector of Prahova river catchment (Romania). A comparative approach between four hybrid models. Sci Total Environ 659:1115–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gourley JJ, Flamig ZL, Hong Y et al (2014) Evaluation of past, present and future tools for radar-based flash-flood prediction in the USA[J]. Int Assoc Sci Hydrol Bull 59(7):1377–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gourley J, Flamig Z, Vergara H et al (2017) The flash project: improving the tools for flash flood monitoring and prediction across the United States[J]. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 98:361–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hapuarachchi HAP, Wang QJ, Pagano TC (2011) A review of advances in flash flood forecasting. Hydrol Process 25(18):2771–2784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. He BS, Huang XL, Guo L (2012) China's mountain flood disaster prevention route and core construction content. Chin Flood Drought Manag 2(05):19–22Google Scholar
  10. Herman GR, Schumacher RS (2018) Flash flood verification: pondering precipitation proxies. J Hydrometeorol 19(11):1753–1776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jiang XY, Ma XX et al (2018) Research on the review method of design flood for mountain torrents disaster in small watershed[J]. Chin Rural Water Hydropower 1:81–84Google Scholar
  12. Li CZ, Guo L (2013) Methods of rainfall Indicator for flash flood. Chin Flood Drought Manag 06:23–28Google Scholar
  13. Li CZ, Guo L, Liu CJ, Sun YD (2015) Flash flood early-warning indicators based on distributed hydrological model-a case study in south branch of Censhui watershed. Chin Flood Drought Manag 25(01):70–76Google Scholar
  14. Lian JJ, Yang WC, Xu K, Hua ZC (2018) Advances and prospect of flash flood forecasting. J Hydroelectric Eng 37(11):1–14Google Scholar
  15. Karbasi M, Shokoohi A, Saghafian B (2018) Loss of life estimation due to flash floods in residential areas using a regional model. Water Resour Manag 32(14):4575–4589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kelsch M (2001) Hydro-meteorological characteristics of flash floods. In: Gruntfest E, Handmer J (eds) Coping with flash floods, NATO science series, environmental security, vol 77. Kluwer academic publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, pp 181–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. National Mountain Flood Prevention and Control Group (2016) Technical requirements for inspection and verification of mountain flash flood early-warning indicators[Z]. National Mountain Flood Prevention and Control Group, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  18. Seo D, Lakhankar T et al (2013) Evaluation of operational National Weather Service Gridded Flash Flood Guidance over the Arkansas Red River Basin. J Am Water Resour Assoc 49(6):1296–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Villarini G, Krajewski WF, Ntelekos AA et al (2010) Towards probabilistic forecasting of flash floods: the combined effects of uncertainty in radar-rainfall and flash flood guidance[J]. J Hydrol 394(1–2):275–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wang Y (2017) The verification method for flash flood disasters investigation and assessment[J]. China Flood Drought Manag 27(6):60–63,82Google Scholar
  21. Yang W, Xu K, Lian J et al (2018) Multiple flood vulnerability assessment approach based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and coordinated development degree model [J]. J Environ Manag 213:440–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ye JY, Li ZJ, Chang L (2014) Research and application of flash flood early-warning method based on dynamic critical precipitation. Meteorol Monthly 40(1):101–107Google Scholar
  23. Yuan WL, Gao QY, Zhang XL (2018) A Morris-Sobol two-layer progressive model for sensitivity analysis of parameters in rainfall threshold calculation[J]. Yellow River 40(07):33–37Google Scholar
  24. Zhao RH, Wang M, Lu XL (2011) Research on determination method for rainfall warning indexes of torrential flood disaster. Water Resour Power 29(9):49–53Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Water Conservancy and EnvironmentZhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Water ConservancyNorth China University of Water Resources and Electric PowerZhengzhouChina

Personalised recommendations