Advertisement

Water Resources Management

, Volume 33, Issue 12, pp 4087–4103 | Cite as

Impact of Land Use Land Cover (LULC) Change on Surface Runoff in an Increasingly Urbanized Tropical Watershed

  • Ike Sari Astuti
  • Kamalakanta SahooEmail author
  • Adam Milewski
  • Deepak R. Mishra
Article
  • 295 Downloads

Abstract

Upper-Brantas watershed in East Java, Indonesia, is a tropical watershed experiencing rapid landscape change, a phenomenon typical to developing countries. This study demonstrates the impact of Land Use Land Cover (LULC) changes on surface runoff in a tropical, urbanized, and data scarce watershed. The LULC changes were quantified between 1995 and 2015 and their impact on the hydrological processes was analyzed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. During the study period, the watershed experienced an increase in settlement and dryland agriculture, and a decrease in the forest, rice field, and sugarcane plantation. The SWAT model results for the calibration (2003–2008) and validation (2009–2013) periods matched observed values [R2 > 0.91 and NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency) >0.91]. In the long-term, the model predicted changes in runoff (+8%), water yield (+0.28%), groundwater (−1.8%), and evapotranspiration (−1.15%) due to changes in LULC. LULC changes showed a linear relationship with runoff generation, and the most significant factors affecting surface runoff were changes in the forest, agriculture, and settlements. Increasing urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural intensification will increase runoff which in turn will enhance the flow of nutrients and sediments into the water bodies.

Keywords

Hydrological modeling Water balance SWAT Water quality Indonesia 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge the Fulbright Exchange Program for Indonesia because of which the first author was able to pursue a PhD program at the Department of Geography, University of Georgia, USA.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11269_2019_2320_MOESM1_ESM.docx (816 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 815 kb)

References

  1. Abbaspour KC (2015) SWAT‐CUP: SWAT Calibration and Uncertainty Programs ‐ A User Manual. Swiss Federal Institute Aquatic Science and Technology. http://www.neprashtechnology.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/UsermanualSwatCup.pdf. Accessed 15 May 2019
  2. Adi S, Jänen I, Jennerjahn TC (2013) History of development and attendant environmental changes in the Brantas River Basin, Java, Indonesia, since 1970. Asian J Water Environ Pollut 10:5–15Google Scholar
  3. Astuti IS, Mishra DR, Wiwoho BS, Kurnia AA (2018) Drivers and Implications Multi-Decadal Land Use Land Cover Change on the Function of Indonesian Watersheds. Doctoral Thesis, University of Georgia, AthensGoogle Scholar
  4. Bappenas (2012) Analisis Perubahan Penggunaan Lahan di Ekosistem DAS dalam Menunjang Ketahanan Air dan Ketahanan Pangan; Studi Kasus DAS Brantas. Direktorat Kehutanan dan Konservasi Sumber Daya Air. Bappenas. https://docplayer.info/31917931-Analisa-perubahan-penggunaan-lahan-di-ekosistem-das-dalam-menunjang-ketahanan-air-dan-ketahanan-pangan.html. Accessed 15 May 2019
  5. Barkey RA, Mappiasse MF, Nursaputra M (2017) Model Of Climate And Land-Use Changes Impact On Water Security In Ambon City, Indonesia. Geoplanning: J Geom Plann 4:97–108.  https://doi.org/10.14710/geoplanning.4.1.97-108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beck HE, Bruijnzeel LA, van Dijk AIJM, McVicar TR, Scatena FN, Schellekens J (2013) The impact of forest regeneration on streamflow in 12 mesoscale humid tropical catchments. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 17:2613–2635.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-17-2613-2013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) (2016) Kota Malang dalam Angka, Indonesia. https://malangkota.bps.go.id/. Accessed 15 May 2019
  8. Bruijnzeel LA (2004) Hydrological functions of tropical forests: not seeing the soil for the trees? Agric Ecosyst Environ 104:185–228.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2004.01.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chang H (2007) Comparative streamflow characteristics in urbanizing basins in the Portland Metropolitan Area, Oregon, USA. Hydrol Process 21:211–222.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.6233 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. DeFries R, Eshleman KN (2004) Land-use change and hydrologic processes: a major focus for the future. Hydrol Process 18:2183–2186.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.5584 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Djuangsih N (1993) Understanding the state of river basin management from an environmental toxicology perspective: an example from water pollution at Citarum river basin, West Java. Indonesia Sci Total Environ 134:283–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(05)80029-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eshtawi T, Evers M, Tischbein B (2016) Quantifying the impact of urban area expansion on groundwater recharge and surface runoff. Hydrol Sci J 61:826–843.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2014.1000916 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Francesconi W, Srinivasan R, Pérez-Miñana E, Willcock SP, Quintero M (2016) Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to model ecosystem services: A systematic review. J Hydrol 535:625–636.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.01.034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fulazzaky MA (2009) Water Quality Evaluation System to Assess the Brantas River Water. Water Resour Manag 23:3019–3033.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-009-9421-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fulazzaky MA (2014) Challenges of Integrated Water Resources Management in Indonesia. Water 6:2000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gassman PW, Reyes MR, Green CH, Arnold JG (2007) The soil and water assessment tool: historical development, applications, and future research directions. T ASABE 50:1211–1250.  https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.23637 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ghaffari G, Keesstra S, Ghodousi J, Ahmadi H (2010) SWAT-simulated hydrological impact of land-use change in the Zanjanrood basin. Northwest Iran Hydrol Process 24:892–903.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7530 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Giri S, Qiu Z (2016) Understanding the relationship of land uses and water quality in Twenty First Century: A review. J Environ Manage 173:41–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.02.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gyamfi C, Ndambuki JM, Salim RW (2016) Hydrological responses to land use/cover changes in the Olifants Basin, South Africa. Water 8:588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Handayani W (2013) Rural-urban transition in Central Java: population and economic structural changes based on cluster analysis. Land 2:419–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hughes JD, Petrone KC, Silberstein RP (2012) Drought, groundwater storage and stream flow decline in southwestern Australia. Geophys Res Lett 39. doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL050797 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kementrian PU (2011) BBWS Brantas. Kementrian Pekerjaan Umum. http://bbwsbrantas.org/. Accessed 15 May 2019Google Scholar
  23. Lehmusluoto P, Machbub B, Terangna N et al. (1997) National inventory of the major lakes and reservoirs in Indonesia. Research Institute for Water Resource Development, Indonesia. https://www.academia.edu/1025268/National inventory of the major lakes and reservoirs in Indonesia. Accessed 15 May 2019Google Scholar
  24. Li H, Zhang Y, Vaze J, Wang B (2012) Separating effects of vegetation change and climate variability using hydrological modelling and sensitivity-based approaches. J Hydrol 420-421:403–418.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.12.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Luo P, Apip HB, Duan W, Takara K, Nover D (2018) Impact assessment of rainfall scenarios and land-use change on hydrologic response using synthetic Area IDF curves. J Flood Risk Manag 11:S84–S97.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jfr3.12164 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Margono BA, Potapov PV, Turubanova S, Stolle F, Hansen MC (2014) Primary forest cover loss in Indonesia over 2000–2012. Nat Clim Chang 4:730.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2277 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Marhaento H, Booij MJ, Rientjes THM, Hoekstra AY (2017) Attribution of changes in the water balance of a tropical catchment to land use change using the SWAT model. Hydrol Process 31:2029–2040.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.11167 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Michaelides K, Lister D, Wainwright J, Parsons AJ (2012) Linking runoff and erosion dynamics to nutrient fluxes in a degrading dryland landscape. Journal Of Geophysical Research 117:G00N15.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JG002071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Milewski A, Sultan M, Al-Dousari A, Yan E (2014) Geologic and hydrologic settings for development of freshwater lenses in arid lands 28:3185-3194. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9823 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Milewski A, Sultan M, Yan E, Becker R, Abdeldayem A, Soliman F, Gelil KA (2009) A remote sensing solution for estimating runoff and recharge in arid environments. J Hydrol 373:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.04.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Misnistry of Forestry (MOF) (1987) A guideline of land rehabilitation and soil conservation. Ministry of Forestry, Jakarta, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  32. Moriasi DN, Arnold JG, Van Liew MW, Bingner RL, Harmel RD, Veith TL (2007) Model Evaluation Guidelines for Systematic Quantification of Accuracy in Watershed Simulations. T ASABE 50:885–900.  https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.23153 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Neitsch SL, Arnold JG, Kiniry JR, Williams JR (2011) Soil and water assessment tool theoretical documentation version 2009. Texas Water Resources Institute, College Station, Texas, US https://swat.tamu.edu/media/99192/swat2009-theory.pdf. Accessed 15 May 2019Google Scholar
  34. Ochoa-Tocachi BF, Buytaert W, De Bièvre B (2016) Regionalization of land-use impacts on streamflow using a network of paired catchments. Water Resour Res 52:6710–6729.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2016WR018596 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Partoyo SRP (2013) Monitoring farmland loss and projecting the future land use of an urbanized watershed in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. J Land Use Sci 8:59–84.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1747423X.2011.620993 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pawitan H, Haryani GS (2011) Water resources, sustainability and societal livelihoods in Indonesia. Ecohydrol Hydrobiol 11:231–243.  https://doi.org/10.2478/v10104-011-0050-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pingale SM, Khare D, Jat MK, Adamowski J (2014) Spatial and temporal trends of mean and extreme rainfall and temperature for the 33 urban centers of the arid and semi-arid state of Rajasthan, India. Atmos Res 138:73–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2013.10.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Polyakov VO, Nearing MA, Nichols MH, Scott RL, Stone JJ, McClaran MP (2010) Long-term runoff and sediment yields from small semiarid watersheds in southern Arizona. Water Resour Res 46:W09512.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2009WR009001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Preston TM, Kim K (2016) Land cover changes associated with recent energy development in the Williston Basin; Northern Great Plains, USA. Sci Total Environ 566-567:1511–1518.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.06.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rahayuningtyas C, Wu R-S, Anwar R, Chiang L-C (2014) Improving AVSWAT Stream Flow Simulation by Incorporating Groundwater Recharge Prediction in the Upstream Lesti Watershed, East Java, Indonesia. Terr Atmos Ocean Sci 25:881–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rostamian R, Jaleh A, Afyuni M, Mousavi SF, Heidarpour M, Jalalian A, Abbaspour KC (2008) Application of a SWAT model for estimating runoff and sediment in two mountainous basins in central Iran. Hydrol Sci J 53:977–988.  https://doi.org/10.1623/hysj.53.5.977 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rutten M, van Dijk M, van Rooij W, Hilderink H (2014) Land use dynamics, climate change, and food security in vietnam: a global-to-local modeling approach. World Dev 59:29–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.01.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sahoo K, Milewski AM, Mani S, Hoghooghi N, Panda SS (2019) Assessment of Miscanthus yield potential from strip-mined lands (SML) and its impacts on stream water quality. Water 11:546.  https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030546 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sajikumar N, Remya RS (2015) Impact of land cover and land use change on runoff characteristics. J Environ Manage 161:460–468.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.12.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Setyorini A, Khare D, Pingale SM (2017) Simulating the impact of land use/land cover change and climate variability on watershed hydrology in the Upper Brantas basin, Indonesia. Appl Geomat 9:191–204.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12518-017-0193-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Seyoum WM, Milewski AM, Durham MC (2015) Understanding the relative impacts of natural processes and human activities on the hydrology of the Central Rift Valley lakes, East Africa. Hydrol Process 29:4312–4324.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10490 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Silveira L, Alonso J (2009) Runoff modifications due to the conversion of natural grasslands to forests in a large basin in Uruguay. Hydrol Process 23:320–329.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7156 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Smith VH, Tilman GD, Nekola JC (1999) Eutrophication: impacts of excess nutrient inputs on freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. Environ Pollut 100:179–196.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(99)00091-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Solar RRDC, Barlow J, Andersen AN, Schoereder JH, Berenguer E, Ferreira JN, Gardner TA (2016) Biodiversity consequences of land-use change and forest disturbance in the Amazon: A multi-scale assessment using ant communities. Biol Conserv 197:98–107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.03.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sulastri AAM, Suryono T (2004) Blooming Alga Dinoflagelata Ceratium hirudinella di Waduk Karangkates , Malang, Jawa Timur. Oseanologi dan Limnologi Indonesia 36:51–67Google Scholar
  51. United States Geological Survey (USGS) (2017) EarthExplorer - Home. https://earthexplorer. usgs.gov/Accessed 15 May 2017Google Scholar
  52. Valentin C, Agus F, Alamban R et al (2008) Runoff and sediment losses from 27 upland catchments in Southeast Asia: Impact of rapid land use changes and conservation practices. Agric Ecosyst Environ 128:225–238.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2008.06.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wagner PD, Kumar S, Schneider K (2013) An assessment of land use change impacts on the water resources of the Mula and Mutha Rivers catchment upstream of Pune, India. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 17:2233–2246.  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-17-2233-2013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wang G, Yang H, Wang L, Xu Z, Xue B (2014) Using the SWAT model to assess impacts of land use changes on runoff generation in headwaters. Hydrol Process 28:1032–1042.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9645 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Widianto D, Lestariningsih ID (2001) Implementasi Kaji Cepat Hidrologi (RHA) di Hulu DAS Brantas. World Agroforestry Center, Jawa Timur Working paper nr.121. Bogor, Indonesia. World Agroforestry Centre.133p. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/downloads/Publications/PDFS/ WP10338.pdf. Accessed 15 May 2018Google Scholar
  56. Zemke JJ (2016) Runoff and soil erosion assessment on forest roads using a small scale rainfall simulator. Hydrology 3:25CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  2. 2.Department of GeographyUniversitas Negeri MalangJawa TimurIndonesia
  3. 3.College of EngineeringUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  4. 4.Forest Products LaboratoryUnited States Forest ServiceMadisonUSA
  5. 5.Department of Geology, Water Resources & Remote Sensing Group (WRRS)University of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations