Advertisement

Water Resources Management

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 1453–1466 | Cite as

Assessment of Disproportionate Costs According to the WFD: Comparison of Applications of two Approaches in the Catchment of the Stanovice Reservoir (Czech Republic)

  • Jan Macháč
  • Jan Brabec
Article

Abstract

The EU Water Framework Directive requires all water bodies within EU member states to achieve the “good status” by 2015/2021/2027. As it has proved to be very challenging for many water bodies, demand for cost proportionality analysis has increased dramatically, because disproportionate costs are one of the justifiable reasons for a deadline extension. This has led to development of many approaches across Europe. Among others, the Czech official methodology based on monetary cost-benefit analysis and the German “New Leipzig approach” based on criteria and cost threshold were introduced in 2015. Both approaches estimate costs of achieving the “good status”, but differ significantly in evaluating benefits. The Czech methodology identifies various categories of benefits, monetizes them and later compares them with costs of measure implementation. The German methodology determines how proportionate it is to spend on measures based on past public expenditures, objective distance to the “good status” and generated benefits. Both methodologies were tested on a small Stanovice catchment in the Czech Republic with similar results, which allows for a comparison of the two approaches they represent. Achieving the “good status” is viewed as cost-proportionate. Application of both methodologies is associated with numerous problems (e.g., data availability, estimate accuracy), which are further discussed in the paper.

Keywords

Water framework directive Proportionality analysis Cost-benefit analysis New Leipzig approach 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the project of Technology Agency of the Czech Republic No. TD020352 and the project Specific Academic Research Projects 2017 of Charles University, Faculty of Humanities No. 260 471.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ammermüller B, Fälsch M, Holländer R, Klauer B, Sigel K, Mewes M, Bräuer I, Grünig M, Ehlers MH, Borchardt D (2008) Entwicklung einer Methodik zur nicht-monetären Kosten-Nutzen-Abwägung im Umsetzungsprozess der EG-Wasserrahmenrichtlinie. http://www.runder-tisch-werra.de/show_image.php?id=678&download=1. Accessed 28 Sept 2017
  2. Aresti ML (2008) An investigation of regulatory efficiency with reference to the EU water framework directive: an application to Scottish agriculture. The University of Edinburgh, Doctoral dissertationGoogle Scholar
  3. Brouwer R, Barton D, Bateman I, Brander L, Georgiou S, Martín-Ortega, J, …, Wagtendonk A (2009) Economic valuation of environmental and resource costs and benefits in the WFD: technical guidelines for practitioners. Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University, Amsterdam. 2009, pp 240Google Scholar
  4. Corrigan JR, Egan KJ, Downing JA (2009) Aesthetic values of lakes and rivers. In: Likens GE (2009) encyclopedia of inland waters. Elsevier, Amsterdam.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012370626-3.00003-X Google Scholar
  5. Courtecuisse A (2005) Water prices and households’ available income: key indicators for the assessment of potential disproportionate costs illustration from the Artois Picardie Basin (France). Vienna: WG-Env, international work session on water statistics, 20.-22. June 2005Google Scholar
  6. Czech statistical office (2015) Investice na ochranu životního prostředí v letech 1986–2014. (Investment on environmental protection 1986–2014). https://www.czso.cz/documents/10180/20543863/2800221501.xls/89e85479-0e28-4f4b-91ee-015254ddc013?version=1.0 Accessed 2 Oct 2015
  7. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:l28002b
  8. Feuillette S, Levrel H, Boeuf B, Blanquart S, Gorin O, Monaco G, Penisson B, Robichon S (2016). The use of cost-benefit analysis in environmental policies: some issues raised by the water framework directive implementation in France. Environ Sci Policy, Elsevier 57:79–85. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2015.12.002
  9. Galioto F, Marconi V, Raggi M, Viaggi D (2013) An assessment of disproportionate costs in WFD: the experience of Emilia-Romagna. Water 5(4):1967–1995.  https://doi.org/10.3390/w5041967 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hanley N, Black RA (2006) Cost-benefit analysis and the water framework directive in Scotland. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2(2):156–165.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ieam.5630020208 Google Scholar
  11. Jensen CL, Jacobsen BH, Olsen SB, Dubgaard A, Hasler B (2013) A practical CBA-based screening procedure for identification of river basins where the costs of fulfilling the WFD requirements may be disproportionate – applied to the case of Denmark. J Environ Econ Policy 2(2):164–200.  https://doi.org/10.1080/21606544.2013.785676 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Klauer B et al (2007) Verhältnismäßigkeit der Maßnahmenkosten im Sinne der EG-Wasserrahmenrichtlinie – komplementäre Kriterien zur Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse. Helmholtz Zentrum für Umweltforschung, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  13. Klauer et al (2015) Unverhältnismäßige Kosten nach EG-Wasserrahmenrichtlinie – Ein Verfahren zur Begründung weniger strenger Umweltziele. Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung – UFZ Department Ökonomie, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  14. Klauer B, Sigel K, Schiller J (2016) Disproportionate costs in the EU water framework directive—how to justify less stringent environmental objectives. Environ Sci Policy 59:10–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2016.01.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Klauer B, Schiller J, Sigel K (2017) Is the achievement of “good status” for German surface waters disproportionately expensive?—comparing two approaches to assess disproportionately high costs in the context of the European. Water framework directive. Water 9(8):554.  https://doi.org/10.3390/w9080554 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Macháč J, Brabec J, Slavíková L (2015a) Pilot study of cost proportionality analysis according to the “new Leipzig approach” in the catchment of the Stanovice reservoir in the Czech Republic. http://www.ieep.cz/en/research-interests/params/6/71.html. Accessed 18 Jan 2017
  17. Macháč J, Slavíková L et al. (2015b). Ekonomické hodnocení nákladové efektivnosti opatření na snížení vnosu fosforu do vodní nádrže Stanovice. (Economic assessment of the cost effectiveness of measures to reduce inputs of phosphorus into the reservoir tank Stanovice) IREAS, Institut pro strukturální politiku, o.p.s., PragueGoogle Scholar
  18. Macháč J, Brabec J, Slavíková L (2016) Případová studie: Hodnocení nákladové přiměřenosti dosahování dobrého stavu v povodí vodní nádrže Stanovice. (Case study: Evaluation of cost-proportionality of achieving the good status at Stanovice water reservoir catchment). Internal document of project TD020352 – Hodnocení nákladové přiměřenosti v rámci dosahování dobrého stavu vodních útvarů. UJEP, Ústí nad LabemGoogle Scholar
  19. Martin-Ortega J (2012) Economic prescriptions and policy applications in the implementation of the European water framework directive. Environ Sci Policy 24:83–91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2012.06.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Martin-Ortega J et al (2013) Cost-effectiveness analysis report for the Thames sub-catchment including analysis of disproportionality Refresh WP6Google Scholar
  21. Nocker LD, Broeks S, Liekens I, Görlach B, Jantzen J, Campling P (2007). Costs and benefits associated with the implementation of the water framework directive, with a special focus on agriculture: final report. Study for DG EnvironmentGoogle Scholar
  22. Povodí Ohře (2009). List hodnocení útvaru povrchových vod (Assessment of surface water body) ID 113020300001. http://www.poh.cz/VHP/pop/C/5_LISTY_HODNOCENI/UTVARY_POVRCHOVYCH_VOD/113020300001.pdf. Accessed 19 Feb 2017
  23. Povodí Ohře (2014) Vodní dílo Stanovice. www.poh.cz. Accessed 4 Jan 2017
  24. Pretty JN, Mason CF, Nedwell DB, Hine RE, Leaf S, Dils R (2003) Environmental costs of freshwater eutrophication in England and wales. Environ Sci Technol 37(2):201–208.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es020793k
  25. Slavíková L, Vojáček O, Macháč J, Hekrle M, Ansorge L (2015) Metodika k aplikaci výjimek z důvodu nákladové nepřiměřenosti opatření k dosahování dobrého stavu vodních útvarů. (Methodology of Exemption Application in Case of Cost-disporoportionality of achieving the "Good Status" on water bodies). Výzkumný ústav vodohospodářský T. G. Masaryka, v.v.i., PragueGoogle Scholar
  26. Vinten AJA, Martin-Ortega J, Glenk K, Booth P, Balana BB, MacLeod M, Lago M, Moran D, Jones M (2012) Application of the WFD cost proportionality principle to diffuse pollution mitigation: a case study for Scottish lochs. J Environ Manag 97:28–37.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.10.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vojáček O, Macháč J, Smejkal T (2014) Lake Orlík basin to reduce phosphorus contamination of tributaries. In: Sauer P (ed) Providing information for decision making in environmental management: young schoolar’s perspective, Litomysl seminar Publicing, pp 30–41. ISBN 978-80-86709-21-5Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EconomicsUniversity of EconomicsPrague 3Czech Republic
  2. 2.Faculty of HumanitiesCharles UniversityPrague 5Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations