Advertisement

Water Resources Management

, Volume 30, Issue 7, pp 2483–2496 | Cite as

Impact of Climate Change on Salinization of Coastal Water Resources

  • N. Colombani
  • A. Osti
  • G. Volta
  • M. MastrociccoEmail author
Article

Abstract

A density-dependent numerical model was set up to quantify the actual and future (2050) salinization of a coastal aquifer in the Po Delta (Italy). SEAWAT 4.0 was used for this purpose, while PEST was used for automatic inverse parameter calibration. The use of high-resolution multi-level sampling allowed obtaining insights in the salinity stratification within the aquifer and on the vertical fluxes induced by the reclamation drainage network. The calibrated model was employed to build up a scenario investigating the effects of the projected relative sea level rise on groundwater salinity by 2050. This scenario allowed to identify the zones that resulted more affected by the relative sea level rise and to quantify the increase in salinization of groundwater, the salt loads export towards surface waters and the changing volumes of freshwater. Results show that the Po Delta will experience a significant salinization by 2050 and that the major cause is autonomous salinization via seepage of saline groundwater rather than enhanced seawater intrusion due to sea level rise.

Keywords

Coastal aquifer Groundwater salinization Drainage network Numerical modelling 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We gratefully thank the Geological, Seismic and Soil Survey of Emilia-Romagna Region for the aquifer base raster and ARPA SIMC for the meteorological data.

Supplementary material

11269_2016_1292_MOESM1_ESM.docx (56 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 55 kb)

References

  1. Alvarez MDP, Carol E, Dapeña C (2015) The role of evapotranspiration in the groundwater hydrochemistry of an arid coastal wetland (Península Valdés, Argentina). Sci Total Environ 506–507:299–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benini L, Antonellini M, Laghi M, Mollema PN (2015) Assessment of water resources availability and groundwater salinization in future climate and land use change scenarios: a case study from a coastal drainage basin in Italy. Water Resour Manag. doi: 10.1007/s11269-015-1187-4 Google Scholar
  3. Chang SW, Clement TP, Simpson MJ, Lee KK (2011) Does sea-level rise have an impact on saltwater intrusion? Adv Water Resour 34(10):1283–1291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Colombani N, Mastrocicco M, Giambastiani BMS (2014) Predicting salinization trends in a lowland coastal aquifer: Comacchio (Italy). Water Resour Manag 29(2):603–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. de Louw PGB, Oude Essink GHP, Stuyfzand PJ, van der Zee SEATM (2010) Upward groundwater flow in boils as the dominant mechanism of salinization in deep polders, The Netherlands. J Hydrol 394(3–4):494–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Doherty J (2002) PEST: Model-independent parameter estimation: user’s manual, 5th edn. Watermark Numer Comput, BrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  7. Feseker T (2007) Numerical studies on saltwater intrusion in a coastal aquifer in northwestern Germany. Hydrogeol J 15(2):267–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fetter CW (2001) Applied hydrogeology, 4th edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, p 598Google Scholar
  9. Giambastiani BMS, Colombani N, Mastrocicco M, Fidelibus MD (2013) Characterization of the lowland coastal aquifer of Comacchio (Ferrara, Italy): hydrology, hydrochemistry and evolution of the system. J Hydrol 501:35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hill MC (1998) Methods and guidelines for effective model calibration. US Geological Survey, Denver, 4005 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. IPCC (2014) Climate Change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part B: regional aspects. In: Barros VR, Field CB, Dokken DJ, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Bilir TE, Chatterjee M, Ebi KL, Estrada YO, Genova RC, Girma B, Kissel ES, Levy AN, MacCracken S, Mastrandrea PR, White LL (eds) Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  12. Langevin CD, Zygnerski M (2013) Effect of sea-level rise on salt water intrusion near a Coastal Well Field in Southeastern Florida. Ground Water 51(5):781–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Langevin CD, Thorne DTJr, Dausman AM, Sukop MC, Guo W (2008) SEAWAT Version 4: a computer program for simulation of multi-species solute and heat transport. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-A22, 39 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Mastrocicco M, Giambastiani BMS, Severi P, Colombani N (2012) The importance of data acquisition techniques in saltwater intrusion monitoring. Water Resour Manag 26(10):2851–2866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mastrocicco M, Giambastiani BMS, Colombani N (2013) Ammonium occurrence in a salinized lowland coastal aquifer. Hydrol Process 27(24):3495–3501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Oude Essink GHP, van Baaren ES, de Louw PGB (2010) Effects of climate change on coastal groundwater systems: a modeling study in the Netherlands. Water Resour Res 46, W00F04CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pérez-Martín MA, Estrela T, Andreu J, Ferrer J (2014) Modeling water resources and river-aquifer interaction in the Júcar River Basin, Spain. Water Resour Manag 28(12):4337–4358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rahmstorf S (2007) A semi-empirical approach to projecting future sea-level rise. Science 315:68–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ranjan P, Kazama S, Sawamoto M, Sana A (2009) Global scale evaluation of coastal fresh groundwater resources. Ocean Coast Manag 52(3–4):197–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sarma B, Sarma AK, Singh VP (2013) Optimal ecological management practices (EMPs) for minimizing the impact of climate change and watershed degradation due to urbanization. Water Resour Manag 27(11):4069–4082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Scarascia L, Lionello P (2013) Global and regional factors contributing to the past and future sea level rise in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Glob Planet Chang 106:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Teatini P, Ferronato M, Gambolati G, Gonella M (2006) Groundwater pumping and land subsidence in the Emilia-Romagna coastland, Italy: modeling the past occurrence and the future trend. Water Resour Res 42:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (2001) Water testing for permeability. In: Engineering Geology Field Manual, Vol 2, Chap 17, US Dept of the Interior, Washington, p 443Google Scholar
  24. Ventura M, Scandellari F, Ventura F, Guzzon B, Pisa PR, Tagliavini M (2008) Nitrogen balance and losses through drainage waters in an agricultural watershed of the Po Valley (Italy). Eur J Agron 29(2):108–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Werner AD, Simmons CT (2009) Impact of sea-level rise on sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers. Ground Water 47(2):197–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth Sciences“Sapienza” UniversityRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Physics and Earth SciencesUniversity of FerraraFerraraItaly
  3. 3.Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and TechnologiesSecond University of NaplesCasertaItaly

Personalised recommendations