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Water Resources Management

, Volume 28, Issue 10, pp 3271–3290 | Cite as

Simulation of Water Distribution Network under Pressure-Deficient Condition

  • P. SivakumarEmail author
  • R. K. Prasad
Article

Abstract

Pressure deficient condition occurs in the water distribution network (WDN) when the nodal demands are in excess of the design discharge as in the case of fire demand, pump failure, pipe breaks, valve failure etc. It causes either no-flow or partial-flow depending upon the available pressure head at the nodes. To evaluate the nodal flows in such condition, node flow analysis (NFA) gives reasonable results in comparison to demand-driven analysis (DDA) and head-dependent analysis (HDA). The NFA works on the predefined pressure-discharge relationship to evaluate the nodal flows. However, this approach requires human intervention and hence cannot be applied to large WDN. Recently, modified pressure-deficient network algorithm (M-PDNA) has been developed by Babu and Mohan (2012) for pressure-deficient analysis with EPANET toolkit. However, it requires modification of the source code of EPANET. In this study a relationship with the M-PDNA and node flow analysis (Gupta and Bhave 1996) has been investigated and it is found that M-PDNA is the simplified version of NFA. Further, the working principle of M-PDNA has been investigated with suitable examples of Babu and Mohan (2012). The theoretical basis of M-PDNA has not been investigated in terms of head-discharge relationship. Herein, a head-discharge relationship based on the working principal of M-PDNA is proposed. Some of the toolkits are also readily available to modify demand driven solver of EPANET 2 to suit for the pressure-driven analysis and then it can be used for analysing pressure deficient network. Also in this study, a modification in M-PDNA approach is proposed which does not require the use of EPANET toolkit which is found to be capable of simulating both pressure-sufficient and pressure-deficient conditions in a single hydraulic simulation. Using the proposed approach, pressure-deficient condition is analysed with constant and variable demand pattern.

Keywords

Water distribution network Pressure-deficient condition Pressure-driven analysis Node-flow analysis Fire demand Variable demand pattern 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are very thankful to the officials of the Public Health Engineering and Water Supply Department (PHE &WSD), Itanagar, Government of Arunachal Pradesh for providing necessary data for this study. The authors are also grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their critical reviews and constructive suggestions to improve the manuscript further.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NERISTNirjuli ItanagarIndia

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