Effect of Ageing of Pipe and Lining Materials on Elemental Composition of Suspended Particles in a Water Distribution System
- 338 Downloads
Water samples collected from a drinking water supply system were assessed for elemental composition (Al, Si, Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn) of suspended particles. Particulate Fe, Mn and Al concentrations were significantly correlated even though their origins are considered to be different. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis revealed that elemental compositions can vary according to pipe and lining materials and service ages. Differences in concentrations of the particulate elements were calculated between upstream and downstream sites and then subjected to further PCA. In PC1, Fe, Mn and Al exhibited high factor loadings, whereas only Ca was a high contributor for PC2. This implies that ageing-related corrosion and degradation of mortar lining can affect the elemental composition of suspended particles in water distribution systems. We concluded that the elemental composition of suspended particulates can be used to detect ageing pipes in water distribution systems.
KeywordsParticle Element Ageing Mortar lining Steel pipe Principal component analysis
The authors thank members of Hitachi City for arranging the fieldwork and providing information on the drinking water supply system, and Hiromu Tsugane, Ryutaro Inoue, Tohru Kuroha, Shinobu Chinone and Yoshio Hosaka for helping with sampling, analytical support and technical discussion. This research was supported by JST A-STEP (12101523, 11100721 and 10101737).
- Boxall J, Skipworth P, Saul A (2003) Aggressive flushing for discolouration event mitigation in water distribution networks. Water Supply 3(1–2):179–186Google Scholar
- Gauthier V, Barbeau B, Millette R, Block JC, Prevost M (2001) Suspended particles in the drinking water of two distribution systems. Water Sci Technol Water Supply 237–245Google Scholar
- Geldreich EE (1996) Microbial quality of water supply in distribution systems. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Inoue T, Matsui Y, Terada Y, Baba K, Matsushita T (2004) Characterization of microparticles in raw, treated, and distributed waters by means of elemental and particle size analyses. Water Sci Technol 50(12):71–78Google Scholar
- Japan Water Research Center (2005) Final Report of EPOCH Research Project. Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- LeChevallier MW, Babcock TM, Lee RG (1987) Examination and characterization of distribution system biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol 53(12):2714–2724Google Scholar
- Lin J, Coller BA (1997) Aluminium in a water supply part 3: domestic tap waters. Water-Melbourne Then Artarmon 24:11–14Google Scholar
- Sly LI, Hodgkinson MC, Arunpairojana V (1990) Deposition of manganese in a drinking water distribution system. Appl Environ Microbiol 56(3):628–639Google Scholar
- Takizawa S, Ushikubo T, Morita H, Ishii K, Kondo S (2011) Fundamental study on the neutralization and deterioration of the mortar linings of the ductile iron pipes. J Jpn Water Works Assoc 80(8):2–11 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Tuovinen OH, Button KS, Vuorinen A, Carlson L, Mair DM, Yut LA (1980) Bacterial, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics of tubercles in distribution pipelines. J Am Water Work Assoc 626–635Google Scholar
- Verberk J, Vreeburg JHG, Rietveld LC, Van Dijk JC (2009) Particulate fingerprinting of water quality in the distribution system. Water SA 35(2):192–199Google Scholar