Water Resources Management

, Volume 28, Issue 6, pp 1645–1653 | Cite as

Effect of Ageing of Pipe and Lining Materials on Elemental Composition of Suspended Particles in a Water Distribution System

  • Masafumi Fujita
  • Yoshiyuki Ishiwatari
  • Iori Mishima
  • Norihiko Utsuno
  • Takeshi Kato


Water samples collected from a drinking water supply system were assessed for elemental composition (Al, Si, Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn) of suspended particles. Particulate Fe, Mn and Al concentrations were significantly correlated even though their origins are considered to be different. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis revealed that elemental compositions can vary according to pipe and lining materials and service ages. Differences in concentrations of the particulate elements were calculated between upstream and downstream sites and then subjected to further PCA. In PC1, Fe, Mn and Al exhibited high factor loadings, whereas only Ca was a high contributor for PC2. This implies that ageing-related corrosion and degradation of mortar lining can affect the elemental composition of suspended particles in water distribution systems. We concluded that the elemental composition of suspended particulates can be used to detect ageing pipes in water distribution systems.


Particle Element Ageing Mortar lining Steel pipe Principal component analysis 



The authors thank members of Hitachi City for arranging the fieldwork and providing information on the drinking water supply system, and Hiromu Tsugane, Ryutaro Inoue, Tohru Kuroha, Shinobu Chinone and Yoshio Hosaka for helping with sampling, analytical support and technical discussion. This research was supported by JST A-STEP (12101523, 11100721 and 10101737).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masafumi Fujita
    • 1
  • Yoshiyuki Ishiwatari
    • 2
    • 3
  • Iori Mishima
    • 4
  • Norihiko Utsuno
    • 5
  • Takeshi Kato
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Urban and Civil EngineeringIbaraki UniversityHitachiJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Science and EngineeringIbaraki UniversityHitachiJapan
  3. 3.Industrial Technology Institute of Ibaraki PrefectureHigashi-ibarakiJapan
  4. 4.Center for Environmental Science in SaitamaKazoJapan
  5. 5.Ibaraki Kasumigaura Environmental Science CenterTsuchiuraJapan

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