Noniterative Implementation of Pressure-Dependent Demands Using the Hydraulic Analysis Engine of EPANET 2
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To analyze water distribution networks under pressure-deficient conditions, most of the available hydraulic simulators, including EPANET 2, must be either modified by embedding pressure-dependent demands in the governing network equations or run repeatedly with successive adjustments made to specific parameters until a sufficient hydraulic consistency is obtained. This paper presents and discusses a simple technique that implements the square root relationship between the nodal demand and the nodal pressure using EPANET 2 tools and allows a water distribution network with pressure-dependent demands to be solved in a single run of the unmodified snapshot hydraulic analysis engine of EPANET 2. In this technique, artificial strings made up of a flow control valve, a pipe with a check valve, and a reservoir are connected to the demand nodes before running the engine, and the pressure-dependent demands are determined as the flows in the strings. The resistance of the artificial pipes is chosen such that the demands are satisfied in full at a desired nodal pressure. The proposed technique shows reasonable convergence as evidenced by its testing on example networks.
KeywordsWater distribution Demand-driven analysis Pressure-dependent demand Hydraulic simulator
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