Water Resources Management

, Volume 27, Issue 7, pp 2353–2368 | Cite as

Flood Hazards Mitigation Analysis Using Remote Sensing and GIS: Correspondence with Town Planning Scheme



Flood is an overflow of water that submerges land and the inflow of tide onto land. Floods usually cause large-scale loss of human life and wide spread damage to properties. In this study, integration of the satellite and GIS datasets are carried out to prepare the flood zonation mapping of Surat district, Gujarat, India. High resolution remote sensing images from Google-earth, IRS-1D, 1:50000 topographical maps are combined with hydraulic analysis and digital elevation model (DEM) to identify the flood susceptible area of the various zones divided as North, South, East, West, Central, South-East and South-West validated with the field surveys. The work is extended up to the Town Planning Scheme (TPS), to detect the most vulnerable areas in terms of submergence. Overall analysis indicates that more than 90–95 % of the area would be submerged if the flood of the same frequency happened over this flood plain in the near future. To mitigate the floods hazards, various remedial measures are suggested to lower the degree of danger owing to future flood events.


Flood hazards Remote sensing GIS Lower tapi basin Town planning scheme 



We are thankful to the anonymous reviewers for their illuminating comments. The authors would like to express their sincere thanks to Bhaskaracharya Institute For Space Applications and Geo-Informatics, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, National Resources Information System, Survey of India, Central Water Commission, Irrigation Department, Surat Municipal Corporation and Technical Bulletin-Report on Reconnaissance Soil Survey of Surat District for providing necessary data, facilities and support during the study period.


  1. Ahmad S, Simonovic SP (2000) System dynamics modeling of reservoir operations for flood management. J Comput Civ Eng 14(3):190–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcántara-Ayala I (2002) Geomorphology, natural hazards, vulnerability and prevention of natural disasters in developing countries. Geomorphology 47(2):107–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Büchele B, Kreibich H, Kron A, Thieken A, Ihringer J, Oberle P, Merz B, Nestmann F (2006) Flood-risk mapping: contributions towards an enhanced assessment of extreme events and associated risks. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 6(4):485–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cobby DM, Mason DC, Davenport IJ (2001) Image processing of airborne scanning laser altimetry data for improved river flood modelling. ISPRS J Photogramm Remote Sens 56(2):121–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cook A, Merwade V (2009) Effect of topographic data, geometric configuration and modeling approach on flood inundation mapping. J Hydrol 377(1):131–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Roo A, Wesseling C, Van Deursen W (2000) Physically based river basin modelling within a GIS: the LISFLOOD model. Hydrol Processes 14(11–12):1981–1992Google Scholar
  7. Dewan A, Islam MM, Kumamoto T, Nishigaki M (2007) Evaluating flood hazard for land-use planning in Greater Dhaka of Bangladesh using remote sensing and GIS techniques. J Water Resour Manag 21(9):1601–1612. doi: 10.1007/s11269-006-9116-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dutta D, Herath S, Musiake K (2003) A mathematical model for flood loss estimation. J Hydrol 277(1):24–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gupta M, Srivastava PK (2010) Integrating GIS and remote sensing for identification of groundwater potential zones in the hilly terrain of Pavagarh, Gujarat, India. Water Int 35(2):233–245. doi: 10.1080/02508061003664419 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jain S, Saraf A, Goswami A, Ahmad T (2006) Flood inundation mapping using NOAA AVHRR data. J Water Resour Manag 20(6):949–959. doi: 10.1007/s11269-006-9016-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jonkman S (2005) Global perspectives on loss of human life caused by floods. Nat Hazard 34(2):151–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kundzewicz Z, Hirabayashi Y, Kanae S (2010) River floods in the changing climate—observations and projections. J Water Resour Manag 24(11):2633–2646. doi: 10.1007/s11269-009-9571-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kundzewicz ZW, Menzel L (2003) Flood risk and vulnerability in the changing worldGoogle Scholar
  14. Mankodi K (1992) Resettlement and rehabilitation of dam oustees: A case study of Ukai Dam. Big Dams, displaced people: rivers of sorrow rivers of change. Sage, New Delhi, pp 77–100Google Scholar
  15. Matgen P, Schumann G, Henry JB, Hoffmann L, Pfister L (2007) Integration of SAR-derived river inundation areas, high-precision topographic data and a river flow model toward near real-time flood management. Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinformation 9(3):247–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Merz B, Thieken A, Gocht M (2007) Flood risk mapping at the local scale: concepts and challenges. Flood risk management in Europe, pp 231–251Google Scholar
  17. Mitchell JK (2003) European river floods in a changing world. Risk Anal 23(3):567–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Parmar B, Rao B (2002) Flood control operation for Ukai multipurpose reservoir. p 278Google Scholar
  19. Patel D, Patel I (2002) Flood control operation of Ukai multipurpose reservoir issues and need. Basin-storming session on application of system techniques for water resources management in India–Current Trends & Future Directions, pp 13–31Google Scholar
  20. Patel DP, Dholakia MB (2010a) Feasible structural and non-structural measures to minimize effect of flood in Lower Tapi Basin. WSEAS Trans Fluid Mech 3:104–121Google Scholar
  21. Patel DP, Dholakia MB (2010b) Identifying probable submergence area of surat city using digital elevation model and geographical information system. World Appl Sci J 9(4):461–466Google Scholar
  22. Patel DP, Patel CG, Dholakia MB, Sherasia N (2009) River hydraulics analysis & remedial measures of tapi river at LTB. In: International conference on advances in mechanical and building science in the 3rd millennium, ICAMB-2009, pp 1862–1867Google Scholar
  23. Patel DP, Dholakia MB, Naresh N, Srivastava PK (2012a) Water harvesting structure positioning by using geo-visualization concept and prioritization of mini-watersheds through morphometric analysis in the Lower Tapi Basin. J Indian Soc Remote Sensing 40(2):299–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Patel DP, Gajjar CA, Srivastava PK (2012b) Prioritization of Malesari mini-watersheds through morphometric analysis: a remote sensing and GIS perspective. Environmental Earth Sciences. doi: 10.1007/s12665-012-2086-0
  25. Pistrika A, Tsakiris G (2007) Flood risk assessment: A methodological framework. Water Resources Management: New Approaches and Technologies European Water Resources Association, Chania, Crete-GreeceGoogle Scholar
  26. Sanders BF (2007) Evaluation of on-line DEMs for flood inundation modeling. Adv Water Res 30(8):1831–1843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sanjay K, Goel MK (2002) Assessing the vulnerability to soil erosion of the Ukai Dam catchments using remote sensing and GIS. Hydrol Sci J 47(1):31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schumann G, Matgen P, Cutler M, Black A, Hoffmann L, Pfister L (2008) Comparison of remotely sensed water stages from LiDAR, topographic contours and SRTM. ISPRS J Photogramm Remote Sens 63(3):283–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sivakumar MVK (2005) Impacts of natural disasters in Agriculture, rangeland and forestry: An overview. Natural disasters and extreme events in Agriculture, page 1–22Google Scholar
  30. Smith K (2009) Environmental hazards: assessing risk and reducing disaster. RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  31. Srivastava PK, Gupta M, Mukherjee S (2012a) Mapping spatial distribution of pollutants in groundwater of a tropical area of India using remote sensing and GIS. Appl Geomatics 4(1):21–32. doi: 10.1007/s12518-011-0072-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Srivastava PK, Han D, Gupta M, Mukherjee S (2012b) Integrated framework for monitoring groundwater pollution using a geographical information system and multivariate analysis. Hydrol Sci J 57(7):1453–1472. doi: 10.1080/02626667.2012.716156 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Srivastava PK, Han D, Rico-Ramirez MA, Bray M, Islam T (2012c) Selection of classification techniques for land use/land cover change investigation. Adv Space Res 50(9):1250–1265. doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2012.06.032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Srivastava PK, Mukherjee S, Gupta M (2008) Groundwater quality assessment and its relation to land use/land cover using remote sensing and GIS. Proceedings of international groundwater conference on groundwater use—efficiency and sustainability: Groundwater and drinking water issues, Jaipur, India, pp 19–22Google Scholar
  35. Srivastava PK, Mukherjee S, Gupta M (2010) Impact of urbanization on land use/land cover change using remote sensing and GIS: a case study. Inter J Ecol Econ Stat 18(S10):106–117Google Scholar
  36. Srivastava PK, Mukherjee S, Gupta M, Singh S (2011) Characterizing monsoonal variation on water quality index of river mahi in India using geographical information system. Water Qual Expo Health 2(3):193–203. doi: 10.1007/s12403-011-0038-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tobin GA, Montz BE (1997) Natural hazards: Explanation and integration. Guilford PressGoogle Scholar
  38. Todini E (1999) An operational decision support system for flood risk mapping, forecasting and management. Urban Water 1(2):131–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tsakiris G (2006) Practical application of risks and hazard concepts in proactive planning. In: Report in the framework of NOE Interreg IIIC (DISMA subproject). DISMA coordination meeting, pp 14–15Google Scholar
  40. Tsakiris G, Bellos V, Ziogas C (2010) Embankment dam failure: a downstream flood hazard assessment. European Water 32:35–45Google Scholar
  41. Tsakiris G, Nalbantis I, Pistrika A (2009) Critical technical issues on the EU flood directive. Centre for the assessment of natural hazards and proactive planning, School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  42. Tunstall S, Johnson C, Penning-Rowsell E (2004) Flood hazard management in England and Wales: From land drainage to flood risk management, pp 19–21Google Scholar
  43. Wang Y, Colby J, Mulcahy K (2002) An efficient method for mapping flood extent in a coastal floodplain using Landsat TM and DEM data. Int J Remote Sens 23(18):3681–3696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Werner M (2001) Impact of grid size in GIS based flood extent mapping using a 1D flow model. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere 26(7):517–522Google Scholar
  45. Xu C (1999) Climate change and hydrologic models: a review of existing gaps and recent research developments. J Water Resour Manag 13(5):369–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringDr Jivraj Mehta Institute of TechnologyAnandIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biological and Environmental SciencesNVPAS, Sardar Patel UniversityAnandIndia
  3. 3.Water and Environment Management Research Centre, Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of BristolBristolUK

Personalised recommendations