Advertisement

Water Resources Management

, Volume 26, Issue 10, pp 2991–3004 | Cite as

Water Cognition and Cognitive Affective Mapping: Identifying Priority Clusters Within a Canadian Water Efficiency Community

  • S. E. Wolfe
Article

Abstract

We often assume that researchers and decision-makers are rational beings reliant on hard data to determine the best policy. But individuals are also influenced by their experiences with their physical and social environments. How they perceive and interact with their environment is also important for decision-making. The brain processes these personal and professional experiences to generate the emotional responses and belief systems used to interpret environments. It is these brain-environment interpretation and coding, storage and recall functions that provide the different mental representations used for ongoing interactions with the world. Social psychologists, anthropologists, behavioural geographers and environmental sociologists have extensive theoretical and empirical mechanisms to investigate how this processing shifts from an individual level to the social level. It is this interplay between individuals’ cognitive processing and emotion, along with group decision-making about water policy, that is the basis for a water cognition framework. How to test and evaluate a water cognition framework is the challenge. Cognitive affective mapping (CAM)—as both a process and product—offers one possible mechanism. Cognitive affective maps (CAMs) can be used for data collection, analysis and a communication medium. These roles allow the researcher to articulate individuals’ deep emotions and values within a water community or network. The design and process can reveal how a community’s values, beliefs and norms have changed over time and what potential exists for addressing embedded innovation barriers within a water governance context. To explore these ideas, this paper includes a brief review of the evolving cognitive affective sciences literature as the basis for the water cognition framework, a methodology description of cognitive affective mapping and discussion of results from a Canadian water efficiency community.

Keywords

Affect Barriers-to-implementation Beliefs Canada Cognitive science Decision-making Water efficiency Emotion Governance Knowledge management Pro-environmental behaviour Water Water cognition 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author thanks the anonymous reviewers for their detailed comments on an earlier draft and the Ontario water efficiency community. The Canadian Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council and the International Development Research Centre supported portions of this research.

References

  1. Allan JA (2003) Integrated water resources management is more a political than a technical challenge. Dev Water Sci 50:9–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bechara A, Damasio H, Damasio AH (2000) Emotion, decision-making and the orbitofrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex 10(3):295–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bechara A (2004) The role of emotion in decision-making: Evidence from neurological patients with orbitofrontal damage. Brain Cogn 55(1):30–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boden MA (2006) Mind as machine: A history of cognitive science. Clarendon, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Brooks D (2006) An operational definition of water demand management. Int J Water Resour Dev 22(4):521–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown R, Farrelly M (2007) Barriers to advancing sustainable urban water management: A Typology. In Proceedings of the Rainwater and Urban Design 2007 Conference, Incorporating the 13Th International Rainwater Catchment Systems Conference & the 5th International Water Sensitive Urban Design Conference. 21–23 August, Sydney, New South WalesGoogle Scholar
  7. Brun G, Doguoglu U, Kuenzle D (Eds.) (2010) Epistemology and emotions. Aldershot, AshgateGoogle Scholar
  8. Burke LA, Miller MK (1999) Taking the mystery out of intuitive decision-making. Acad Manag Exec 13:91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burmil S, Daniel TC, Hetherington JD (1999) Human values and perceptions of water in arid landscapes. Landsc Urban Plann 44(2–3):99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chiao JY (2009) Cultural neuroscience: A once and future discipline. Prog Brain Res 178:287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen JD (2005) The Vulcanization of the human brain: A neural perspective on interactions between cognition and emotion. J Econ Perspect 19(4):3–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Corral-Verdugo V, Bechtel RB, Fraijo-Sing B (2003) Environmental beliefs and water conservation: an empirical study. J Environ Psychol 23(3):247–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Corral-Verdugo V, Carrus G, Bonnes M, Moser G, Sinha JPB (2008) Environmental beliefs and endorsement of sustainable development principles in water conservation: toward a new human interdependence paradigm scale. Environ Behav 40(5):703–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Croke BFW, Ticehurst JL, Letcher RA, Norton JP, Newham LTH, Jakeman AJ (2007) Integrated assessment of water resources: australian experiences. Water Resour Manag 21(1):351–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Damasio AR (1994) Decartes’ error. G.P. Putnam’s Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Damasio HT, Grabowski RF, Galburda AM, Damasio AR (1994) The return of Phineas Gage: Clues about the brain from the skull of a famous patient. Science 264:1102–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davis GB, Carley KM (2008) Clearing the FOG: Fuzzy, Overlapping Groups for social networks. Social Networks 30(3):201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dickerson CA, Thibodeau R, Aronson E, Miller D (1992) Using cognitive dissonance to encourage water conservation. J Appl Soc Psychol 22(11):841–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Engelen EM, Markowitsch HJ, Scheve C, Röttger-Rössler B, Stephan A, Holodynski M, Vandekerckhove M (2009) Emotions as bio-cultural processes: Disciplinary debates and an interdisciplinary outlook. In: Röttger-Rössler B, Markowitsch HJ (eds) Emotions as bio-cultural processes. Springer, New York, pp 1–31Google Scholar
  20. Etzioni A (1988) Normative-affective factors: toward a new decision-making model* 1. J Econ Psychol 9(2):125–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fielder, Klaus, Herbert Bless (2000) The formation of beliefs at the interface of affective and cognitive processes. In: Frijda NH, Manstead ASR, Bem S (eds) Emotions and beliefs: How feelings influence thoughts. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 144–170Google Scholar
  22. Finucane ML, Alhakami A, Slovic P, Johnson SM (2000) The affect heuristic in judgments of risks and benefits. J Behav Decis Making 13(1):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fischer AH, Manstead ASR (2010) Social functions of emotion. In: Lewis M, Haviland-Jones JM, Barrett LF (eds) Handbook of emotions, 3rd edn. The Guilford Press, New York, pp 456–470Google Scholar
  24. Fontaine JRJ, Scherer KR, Roesch EB, Ellsworth PC (2007) The world of emotions is not two-dimensional. Psychol Sci 18(2):1050–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Franks DD (2010) Neurosociology, illustrated ed. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Frantz C, Mayer FS, Norton C, Rock M (2005) There is no “I” in nature: the influence of self-awareness on connectedness to nature. J Environ Psychol 25(4):427–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Frijda NH (2010) The psychologists’ point of view. In: Lewis M, Haviland-Jones JM, Barrett LF (eds) Handbook of emotions, 3rd edn. The Guilford Press, New York, pp 68–87Google Scholar
  28. Gaudine A, Thorne L (2001) Emotion and ethical decision-making in organizations. J Bus Ethics 31:175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gibbs LM (2009) Water places: cultural, social and more-than-human geographies of nature. Scot Geogr J 125(3):361–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gifford R (2008) Psychology’s essential role in alleviating the impacts of climate change. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne 49(4):273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Glaser M (2006) The social dimension in ecosystem management: strengths and weaknesses of human-nature mind maps. Hum Ecol Rev 13(2):122Google Scholar
  32. Hamilton LC (1985) Self-reported and actual savings in a water conservation campaign. Environ Behav 17(3):315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Harlan S, Yabiku S, Larsen L, Brazel A (2009) Household water consumption in an arid city: affluence, affordance, and attitudes. Soc Nat Resour 22(8):691–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hatfield E, Rapson RL, Le YL (2009) Primitive emotional contagion: Recent research. In: Decety J, Ickes W (eds) The social neuroscience of empathy. MIT Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  35. Herzog TR, Bosley PJ (1992) Tranquility and preference as affective qualities of natural environments. J Environ Psychol 12(2):115–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hoekstra AY, Chapagain AK (2007) Water footprints of nations: water use by people as a function of their consumption pattern. Water Resour Manag 21(1):35–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Holian R (2006) Management decision-making, ethical issues and “Emotional” intelligence. Manag Decis 44:1122–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hyung-il, A. & Picard, R. W. (2006). Affective-Cognitive learning and decision-making: The role of emotions (pdf), The 18th European Meeting on Cybernetics and Systems Research (EMCSR 2006). April 18–19, 2006, Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  39. Ison R, Collins K, Colvin J, Jiggins J, Roggero PP, Seddaiu G, Steyaert P, Toderi M, Zanolla C (2011) Sustainable catchment managing in a climate changing world: new integrative modalities for connecting policy makers, scientists and other stakeholders. Water Resour Manag. doi: 10.1007/s11269-011-9880-4
  40. Kagan J (2007) What is emotion: history, measures, and meanings. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  41. Kahneman D (2011) Thinking fast and slow. Farrar, Strauss, Giroux, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Koger SM, Du Nann Winter D (2010) The psychology of environmental problems. 3rd edn. Psychology for sustainability. Taylor and Francis Group, New York, NY Google Scholar
  43. Krantz DH, Kunreuther HC (2007) Goals and plans in decision-making. Judgment and Decision-Making 2(3):137–168Google Scholar
  44. Krantz DH, Peterson H, Arora P, Milch K, Orlove B (2008) Individual values and social goals in environmental decision-making. In: Kugler T, Smith JC, Connolly T, Son YJ (eds) Decision modeling and behavior in complex and uncertain environments, Volume 21. Springer Optimization and its Applications, Springer, pp 165–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. LeDoux JE (1996) The emotional brain. Simon & Schuster, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Lerner JS, Keltner D (2000) Beyond valence: Toward a model of emotion-specific influences on judgment and choice. Cognit Emot 14(4):473–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lerner JS, Small DA, Loewenstein GF (2004) Heart strings and purse strings: carryover effects of emotions on economic decisions. Psychol Sci 15:337–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Linton J (2010) What is Water? A history of a modern abstraction. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  49. de Loë R, Moraru L, Kreutzwiser R, Schaefer K, Mills B (2001) Demand side management of water in Ontario Municipalities: status, progress, and opportunities. J Am Water Resour Assoc 37(1):57–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Loewenstein G, Lerner JS (2003) The role of affect in decision-making. In: Davidson RJ, Scherer KR, Goldsmith HH (eds) Handbook of affective science. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 619–642Google Scholar
  51. Mercer J (2010) Emotional beliefs. Int Organ 64(1):1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mériau K, Wartenburger I, Kazzer P, Prehn K, Lammers CH, Van Der Meer E, Villringer A, Heekeren HR (2006) A neural network reflecting individual differences in cognitive processing of emotions during perceptual decision-making. Neuroimage 33(3):1016–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Morewedge CK, Kahneman D (2010) Associative processes in intuitive judgment. Trends Cogn Sci 14(10):435–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nancarrow BE, Smith LM, Syme GJ (1997) The ways people think about water. J Environ Syst 25(1):15–27Google Scholar
  55. Norgaard MK (2011) Living in denial: Climate change, emotions and everyday life. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  56. Northoff G (2010) Humans, brains, and their environment: Marriage between Neuroscience and Anthropology? Neuron 65(6):748–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. de Oliver M (1999) Attitudes and inaction—a case study of the manifest demographics of urban water conservation. Environ Behav 31(3):372–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pahl-Wostl C, Craps M, Dewulf A, Mostert E, Tabara D, Taillieu T (2007) Social learning and water resources management. Ecol Soc 12(2):5Google Scholar
  59. Panksepp J (2010) The affective brain and core consciousness: how does neural activity generate emotional feelings? In: Lewis M, Haviland-Jones JM, Barrett LF (eds) Handbook of emotions, 3rd edn. The Guilford Press, New York, pp 47–67Google Scholar
  60. Pearce M, Willis E, Wadham B, Binks B (2010) Attitudes to drought in outback communities in South Australia. Geographical ResearchGoogle Scholar
  61. Pessoa L (2008) On the relationship between emotion and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci 9(2):148–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Phelps E (2006) Emotion and cognition: Insights from studies of the human amygdala. Annu Rev Psychol 57:27–53. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070234 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rilling JK (2008) Neuroscientific approaches and applications within anthropology. Yearbk Phys Anthropol 51:2–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rogers, P., & Hall, A.W. (2003). Effective water governance. TEC background papers #7. Global Water Partnership Technical Committee (TEC). Retrieved online: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.130.2714&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
  65. Sawyer SW (1983) Water conservation: conflicting attitudes of planners and utility managers. Environ Prof 5:124–133Google Scholar
  66. Schwarz N (2000) Emotion, cognition, and decision-making. Cognit Emot 14(4):433–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Scherer KR (2005) What are emotions? And how can they be measured? Soc Sci Inform 44(4):693–727. doi: 10.1177/0539018405058216 Google Scholar
  68. Settle, J. E., Dawes, C. T., Christakis, N. A. & Fowler, J. H. (2010) Friendships moderate an association between a dopamine gene variant and political ideology. The Journal of Politics, 72 (4), doi: 10.1017/S0022381610000617
  69. Sewell WRD, Burton I (1971) Perceptions and attitudes in resources management. department of energy, mines and resources, government of Canada. Ottawa: Canada.Google Scholar
  70. Seymour B, Dolan R (2008) Emotion, decision-making, and the amygdala. Neuron 58(5):662–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Singh AK, Sikka AK, Upadhyaya A, Bhatnagar PR, Dhanphule S, Singh MK, Singh SR (2008) Scientific perceptions and community responses in a participatory water management endeavor. Water Resour Manag 22(9):1173–1189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Smith ER, Mackie DM (2010) Intergroup emotions. In: Lewis M, Haviland-Jones JM, Barrett LF (eds) Handbook of emotions, 3rd edn. The Guilford Press, New York, pp 428–439Google Scholar
  73. Stets JE, Turner JH (2010) The sociology of emotions. In: Lewis M, Haviland-Jones JM, Barrett LF (eds) Handbook of emotions, 3rd edn. The Guilford Press, New York, pp 32–46Google Scholar
  74. Strang V (2004) The meaning of water. Berg Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  75. Strang V (2006) Fluidscapes: water, identity and the senses. Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion 10(2):147–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Thagard P (2006) Hot thought: mechanisms and applications of emotional cognition. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  77. Thagard P, Kroon FW (2006) Emotional consensus in group decision-making. Mind Soc 5(1):85–104. doi: 10.1007/s11299-006-0011-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Thagard, P. (2010). EMPATHICA: A computer support system with visual representations for cognitive-affective mapping. In K. McGregor (Ed.), Proceedings of the workshop on visual reasoning and representation (pp. 79–81). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. (EMPATHICA is the original name of CAMap).Google Scholar
  79. Thompson SC, Stoutemyer K (1991) Water use as a commons dilemma: the effects of education that focuses on long-term consequences and individual action. Environ Behav 23(3):314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Thompson TL, Mintzes JJ (2002) Cognitive structure and the affective domain: on knowing and feeling in biology. Int J Sci Educ 24(6):645–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tversky A, Kahneman D (1974) Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science 185(4157):1124–1131. doi: 10.1126/science.185.4157.1124 DOI:dx.doi.org CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Valente TW (1996) Social network thresholds in the diffusion of innovations. Soc Networks 18(1):69–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Waller DH, Scott RS (1998) Canadian municipal residential water conservation initiatives. Can Wat Resour J 23(4):369–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wheeldon JP, Faubert J (2009) Framing experience: Concept maps, mind maps, and data collection in qualitative research. Int J Qual Meth 8(3):52–67Google Scholar
  85. Wild B, Erb M, Bartels M (2001) Are emotions contagious? Evoked emotions while viewing emotionally expressive faces: Quality, quantity, time course and gender differences. Psychiatry Res 102(2):109–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Willis RM, Stewart RA, Panuwatwanich K, Williams PR, Hollingsworth AL (2011) Quantifying the influence of environmental and water conservation attitudes on household end use water consumption. J Environ Manage 92(8):1996–2009. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.03.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wolfe SE (2008) Capacity, capability, collaboration and commitment: How social networks influence practitioners of municipal water demand management policy in Ontario, Canada. Environ Pract 10(2):42–52Google Scholar
  88. Wolfe SE (2009) What’s your story? Practitioners’ tacit knowledge and water demand management policies in Southern Africa and Canada. Water Pol 11(4):489–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wolfe, S.E. (Unpublished 2012). Water Cognition: A framework for exploring how emotions and beliefs influence water governance and decision-making. Please contact for a review copy.Google Scholar
  90. Yilmaz B, Yurdusev MA, Harmancioglu NB (2009) The assessment of irrigation efficiency in buyuk menderes basin. Water Resour Manag 23(6):1081–1095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. de Young R, Robinson JE (1984) Some perspectives on managing water demand: public and expert views. Can Wat Resour J 9:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zhu J, Thagard P (2002) Emotion and action. Phil Psychol 15(1):9–36. doi: 10.1080/09515080120109397 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environment and Resource StudiesUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations