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Application of the Regional Flood Frequency Analysis to the Upper and Lower Basins of the Indus River, Pakistan

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Abstract

The paper presents results of an application of the L-moments based regional flood frequency analysis to annual maximum peak (AMP) flows observed at seven stations (Tarbela, Kalabagh, Chashma, Taunsa, Guddu, Sukkur and Kotri) located on the main stream of the Indus River, Pakistan. The results of Run-test and lag-1 correlation coefficient showed that the data series at given sites is random and has no serious serial correlations respectively. Furthermore, the results of Grubbs and Beck test illustrated that there are no irregularities (abrupt variations) except low outlier(s) in the data series at various sites. To avoid their undue influence, these low outliers have been discarded and the sample information has been re-summarized using the idea of left censored type A partial probability weighted moments. L-moments based regional heterogeneity measure (H) showed that the region, defined by seven stations, is heterogeneous; therefore, it has been sub-divided into two homogeneous regions (Region 1 and Region 2 consist of four (Tarbela, Kalabagh, Chashma and Taunsa) and three sites (Guddu, Sukkur and Kotri, respectively) using Ward’s clustering method based on the site characteristics only. The results of various goodness-of-fit measures (L-moment ratio diagram, average weighted distance and Z DIST measures) showed that Region 1 has four candidates: generalized normal (GNO), generalized logistic (GLO), generalized extreme-value (GEV) and Pearson type III (PE3), while Region 2 has only one candidate; GLO, as regional distribution. Based on the results of different accuracy measures (regional average absolute relative bias, relative bias and relative root mean square error) of the estimated regional growth curves and quantiles, obtained from simulation experiments, PE3 is the robust distribution for Region 1, while for Region 2, GLO distribution can be used for the estimation of flood quantiles. Moreover, the results of the simulations study have been extended to obtain standard errors of the estimated quantiles at each site of the sub-divided homogeneous regions.

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Correspondence to Zamir Hussain.

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Hussain, Z. Application of the Regional Flood Frequency Analysis to the Upper and Lower Basins of the Indus River, Pakistan. Water Resour Manage 25, 2797–2822 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-011-9839-5

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Keywords

  • Indus river
  • L-moments
  • Partial probability weighted moments
  • Regional frequency analysis
  • Ward’s clustering method