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Estimation of Crop Coefficient and Evapotranspiration of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in an Irrigation Command Using Remote Sensing and GIS

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Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were used to estimate actual crop evapotranspiration of wheat crop grown in Tarafeni South Main Canal (TSMC) irrigation command of West Bengal State in India. The area under wheat crop was clipped from landuse/land cover map generated from Indian Remote Sensing Satellite P6 (IRS P6) image of January, 2004 for winter season 2003–04. The IRS P6 image and four wide field sensor (WiFS) images for different months of winter season were used to determine the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) for area under wheat crop. The relationship between vegetation indices and crop coefficients (Kc) of wheat for corresponding months were developed. Based on these developed regression equations crop coefficient maps were generated for each month of wheat crop season. Monthly reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) was estimated based on FAO-56, Penman–Monteith method. ETo was combined with spatially distributed Kc maps of different months of wheat crop season to generate crop evapotranspiration (ETc) maps of each month. The crop water demand of wheat estimated using spatially distributed ETc maps for months of December 2003, January 2004, February 2004, March 2004 (1st Fortnight) and March 2004 (2nd Fortnight) were found to be 3.98, 8.14, 4.66, 2.49, and 1.21 million cubic meter (MCM) respectively. Based on crop evapotranspiration the total crop water demand of wheat crop in irrigation command of TSMC was estimated as 20.48 MCM.

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Correspondence to Narendra Kumar Gontia.

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Gontia, N.K., Tiwari, K.N. Estimation of Crop Coefficient and Evapotranspiration of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in an Irrigation Command Using Remote Sensing and GIS. Water Resour Manage 24, 1399–1414 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-009-9505-3

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  • Reference evapotranspiration (ETo)
  • Crop evapotranspiration (ETc)
  • Crop coefficient (Kc)
  • Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)
  • Soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI)
  • Remote sensing
  • Geographical information system (GIS)