Water Resources Management

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 815–834 | Cite as

Evaluation of Chlorine Decay in Drinking Water Systems for Different Flow Conditions: From Theory to Practice

  • Helena M. Ramos
  • D. Loureiro
  • A. Lopes
  • C. Fernandes
  • D. Covas
  • L. F. Reis
  • M. C. Cunha


An intensive study was developed to assess the influence of different flow conditions in the chlorine decay of drinking water systems based on a series of experiments tested on a loop pipe linked to the Lisbon water distribution system. Water samples and chlorine measurements were taken under three distinct flow conditions: (1) steady-state regimes; (2) combined flow situations—an initial steady-state period, followed by successive transient events and a new steady-state period; (3) isolated flow tests—steady-state flow regimes and transient flow regimes performed independently. All the tests were replicated for a typical range of Reynolds numbers in real water distribution systems. More specifically, pressure and velocity variations associated with hydraulic transients or water hammer conditions may degrade water quality. The series of results obtained in steady-state flow conditions confirmed the rate of chlorine decay increases with the Reynolds number and provided evidence that hydraulic transients have a slowing-down effect on chlorine decay rates.


Drinking systems Chlorine residual Hydraulic transients Kinetic model Water quality 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helena M. Ramos
    • 1
  • D. Loureiro
    • 2
  • A. Lopes
    • 2
  • C. Fernandes
    • 3
  • D. Covas
    • 1
  • L. F. Reis
    • 4
  • M. C. Cunha
    • 5
  1. 1.Civil Engineering Department, ISTTechnical University of LisbonLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.National Laboratory of Civil Engineering (LNEC)LisbonPortugal
  3. 3.University of ParanaCuritibaBrazil
  4. 4.Hydraulic and Sanitary DepartmentUniversity of Sao CarlosSao CarlosBrazil
  5. 5.Civil Engineering DepartmentUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

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