Advertisement

Water Resources Management

, Volume 22, Issue 9, pp 1259–1276 | Cite as

Water Resources Management Strategies for Adaptation to Climate-Induced Impacts in South Africa

  • Pierre Mukheibir
Article

Abstract

This paper focuses on the development of a framework for strategy considerations for water resources management in South Africa to meet the development goals in the municipal and agricultural sectors. The north western part of South Africa experiences severe periods of drought and according to the climate change projections, will be most vulnerable to future climate induced water supply stress. A framework for selecting appropriate strategies is presented. A series of potential adaptation strategies most suitable for long term adaptation are discussed. These include both supply and demand side strategies. Barriers and obstacles to implementing these strategies include human and financial resource deficiencies at local municipal and community levels.

Keywords

Climate change Adaptation Water resources management Agriculture South Africa 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abraha MG, Savage MJ (2006) Potential impacts of climate change on the grain yield of maize for the midlands of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Agric Ecosyst Environ 115(1):150–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Argrawala S (2005) Bridge over troubled waters: linking climate change and development. OECD, Paris, p 154Google Scholar
  3. Burton I, Huq S, Lim B, Pilifosova O, Schipper EL (2002) From impacts assessment to adaptation priorities: the shaping of adaptation policy. Clim Pol 2(2–3):145–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Callaway JM (2004) Adaptation benefits and costs: are they important in the global policy picture and how can we estimate them? Glob Environ Change 14:273–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cave L, Beekman H, Weaver J (2003) Impact of climate change on groundwater recharge estimation. In: Xu Y, Beekman H (eds) Groundwater recharge estimation in Southern Africa. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  6. City of Cape Town (2005) Development and Infrastructure (Tariff funded)-Water Services – 20% restriction tariff. http://www.capetown.gov.za/tariffs/
  7. Davidson O, Halsnaes K, Huq S, Kok M, Metz B, Sokona Y, Verhagen J (2003) The development and climate nexus: the case of sub-Saharan Africa. Climate Policy 3(S1):S97–S113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DEAT (Department of Environment and Tourism) (2004) A national climate change response strategy for South Africa. PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  9. DHLG (Department of Housing and Local Government) (2005) Provincial drought task team meeting minutes 13/01/2005. KimberleyGoogle Scholar
  10. DWAF (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry) (1994) Water supply and sanitation policy – White Paper. Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  11. DWAF (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry) (1996) The working for water programme annual report 1995/96. DWAF, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  12. DWAF (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry) (1997) White paper on a national water policy for South Africa. DWAFGoogle Scholar
  13. DWAF (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry) (2000) DRAFT Water conservation and demand management strategy for the water services sectorGoogle Scholar
  14. DWAF (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry) (2004a) National Water Resource Strategy. First EditionGoogle Scholar
  15. DWAF(Department of Water Affairs and Forestry) (2004b) Water conservation and demand management strategy for the water services sectorGoogle Scholar
  16. DWAF (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry) (2004c) Water conservation and water demand management strategy for the agricultural sectorGoogle Scholar
  17. Fischer G, van Velthuisen H, Shah M, Nachtergaele F (2002) Global agro-ecological assessment for agriculture in the 21st century. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldblatt M, Gelb S, Davies G (2002) Macroeconomics and sustainable development in Southern Africa. Development Bank of Southern AfricaGoogle Scholar
  19. Hewitson B, Tadross M, Jack C (2005) Scenarios from the University of Cape Town. In: Schulze RE (ed) Climate change and water resources in Southern Africa: Studies on scenarios, impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptation. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa, pp 39–56Google Scholar
  20. IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change) (2007) Summary for policymakers: climate change 2007: Climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. IPCC, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  21. Jeffrey P, Gearey M (2006) Integrated water resource management: lost on the road from ambition to realisation? Water Sci Technol 53(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kasrils R (2000) A water perspective on invasive species. The best management practices symposium, KirstenboschGoogle Scholar
  23. Kiker GA (2000) Synthesis report for the vulnerability and adaptation assessment section: South African country study on climate change. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  24. Markandya A, Halsnaes K (2002) Climate change and sustainable development: Prospects for developing countries. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Midgley GF, Chapman RA, Hewitson B, Johnston P, De Wit M, Ziervogel G, Mukheibir P, Van Niekerk L, Tadross M, Van Wilgen BW, Kgope B, Morant P, Theron A, Scholes RJ, Forsyth GG (2005) A status quo, vulnerability and adaptation assessment of the physical and socio-economic effects of climate change in the western Cape, Report to the Western Cape Government, Cape Town, South Africa. Report No. ENV-S-C 2005-073, CSIR, StellenboschGoogle Scholar
  26. Mosdell T, Leatt A (2005) On tap: A review of the free basic water policy. In: Leatt A, Rosa S (eds) Towards a means to live: targeting poverty alleviation to make children’s rights real. Children’s Institute, University of Cape Town, Cape TownGoogle Scholar
  27. Mukheibir P (2007) Qualitative assessment of municipal water resource management strategies under climate impacts: the case of the Northern Cape, South Africa. Water S A 33(4):575–581Google Scholar
  28. Mukheibir P, Sparks D (2006) Climate variability, climate change and water resource strategies for small municipalities. WRC Report No. 1500/1/06, Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  29. Mukheibir P, Ziervogel G (2007) Developing a Municipal Adaptation Plan (MAP) for climate change: the city of Cape Town. Environ Urban 19(1):143–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Muller M (2007) Adapting to climate change: water management for urban resilience. Environ Urban 19(1):99–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Munasinghe M, Swart R (2005) Primer on climate change and sustainable development: Facts, policy analysis and applications. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  32. Murray EC (2004) Wise water management for towns and cities – Artificial groundwater recharge. Report No TT219/03, Water Research Commission, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  33. NDA (2002) Abstract of agricultural statistics. PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  34. Ninham Shand, Asch Consulting Engineers, Jackoet & Associates (2004) Clanwilliam Dam Raising Study Specialist Screening Workshop. Workshop starter documentGoogle Scholar
  35. OECD (2006) Agricultural policy reform in South Africa. Policy Brief, PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  36. Otieno FAO, Ochieng GMM (2004) Water management tools as a means of averting a possible water scarcity in South Africa by the year 2025. Water SA 30(5):668–672Google Scholar
  37. Reid P, Vogel C (2006) Living and responding to multiple stressors in South Africa – Glimpses from KwaZulu-Natal. Glob Environ Change 16(2):195–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Reid P, Massay R, Vogel C (2005) Climate and development: Experiences of farmers in Kwa-Zulu-Natal, South Africa. In: Schulze RE (ed) Climate change and water resources in Southern Africa: studies on scenarios, impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptation, Chapter 25. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, pp 395–414Google Scholar
  39. RSA (Republic of South Africa) (2000) Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Strategy (ISRDS). PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  40. Schulze R, Perks L (2000) Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on Hydrology and Water Resources in South Africa. ACRUcons Report 33, School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology, University of Natal, PietermaritzburgGoogle Scholar
  41. Selaolo ET, Beekman H, Gieske ASM, De Vries JJ (2003) Multiple tracer profiling in Botswana. In: Xu Y, Beekman H (eds) Groundwater recharge estimation in Southern Africa. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  42. Soroczan C, Baynes S (2003) Dual-flush toilet testing. Canadian Mortgage Housing CorporationGoogle Scholar
  43. SSA (2003) Key results: Census 2001. PretoriaGoogle Scholar
  44. Stern N (2006) Stern Review: The economics of climate change. HM Treasury, LondonGoogle Scholar
  45. Turton A (1999) Water scarcity and social adaptive capacity: towards an understanding of the social dynamics of water demand management in developing countries. Water Issues Study Group, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of LondonGoogle Scholar
  46. Van Dyk G (2004) Geohydrology, DWAF Northern CapeGoogle Scholar
  47. Van Dyk G, Peters R, Fourie S (2005) Water provision from Groundwater in the Northern Cape: Balancing demand and supply. Biennial Groundwater Conference 381–391Google Scholar
  48. Venter I (2005) Back to basics. Engineering NewsGoogle Scholar
  49. White SB, Fane SA (2002) Designing cost effective water demand management programmes in Australia. Water Sci Technol 46(6–7):225–232Google Scholar
  50. WHO (1995) Community Water Supply and Sanitation: Needs, Challenges and Health Objectives. 48th World Health Assembly A48/INF.DOC./2, 28, World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  51. Yurdusev MA, Kumanhoglu AA (2007) Survey-based estimation of domestic water saving potential in the case of Manisa City. Water Resources Management, on lineGoogle Scholar
  52. Ziervogel G, Bharwani S, Downing T (2005) Adapting to climate variability: Pumpkins, people and policy. Natural Resources Forum 30(4)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Energy Research CentreUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations