Impact of Declining Trend of Flow on Harike Wetland, India
Harike wetland in the Indian state of Punjab is formed by a barrage built downstream on the confluence of rivers Satluj and Beas, with the idea of storing and providing irrigation and drinking water to parts of Southern Punjab and adjoining Rajasthan. Due to decrease in flow at Harike and deforestation etc. in the catchment area, the wetland is reducing in the last few years. In this study, the analysis of rainfall/runoff data has been carried out to see the effect of decreasing trend of runoff on wetland area. Wetland area has been delineated using remote sensing technique. The analysis of rainfall, discharge and ground water level showed that the flow pattern is decreasing at Harike. The remote sensing data revealed that the wetland area has reduced approximately 30% over the last 13 years.
KeywordsWetland Runoff Ground water Remote sensing Aquatic Waterlogged
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Anonymous (1990) Wetlands of India – a directory. Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt. of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- Gopal B (1994) Role of ecotones in conservation and management of tropical inland waters. Mitt Int Verein Theor Angew Limnol 24:17–25Google Scholar
- Jerath N (1992) The environs and problems of Harike wetland; some strategies for conservation. In: Chatrath KJS (ed) Wetlands of India. Ashish, New Delhi, India, pp 103–124Google Scholar
- Lunetta R, Balogh M (1999) Application of multi-temporal landsat 5 TM imagery for wetland identification. Photogramm Eng Remote Sensing 65(11):1303–1310Google Scholar
- MacKinnon F (2001) Wetland application of LIDAR data: analysis of vegetation types and heights in wetlands, 44 p. Applied Geomatics Research Group, Centre of Geographical Sciences, Nova ScotiaGoogle Scholar
- Majumdar PK, Kumar S, Singh RD, Jain SK, Sarkar A (2004) Regional ground water modeling in Satluj Beas basin in Central Punjab. Project report, National Institute of HydrologyGoogle Scholar
- Mitsch WJ, Gosselink JG (2000) Wetlands, 3 edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Neural Power (2003) Neural network professional version 2.5 CPC-X Software, Copyright: 1997–2003 http://www.geocities.com/neuralpower/)
- Ramachandra TV (2001) Restoration and management strategies of wetlands in developing countries. Electron Green J 15:1–15 (December)Google Scholar
- Water and Power Consultancy Services (India) Limited (WAPCOS) (1996) Operation of Bhakra and Pong reservoirs during flood and other flood mitigation measures. Final report (May)Google Scholar
- Zhu M, Fujita M, Hashimoto N (1994) Application of neural networks to runoff prediction. In: Hipel KW et al. (eds) Stochastic and statistical method in hydrology and environmental engineering, vol. 3, pp 205–216. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar