Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Design Methodology of Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands

  • 532 Accesses

  • 14 Citations

Abstract

Simple criteria, guidelines and models are established for free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland selection and preliminary sizing. The analysis employs models for FWS constructed wetland design, considering simultaneously the removal requirements and the hydraulics of the system. On the basis of these models, a step-by-step methodology is developed outlining the design procedure for new and performance evaluation for existing FWS constructed wetland systems. This methodology is combined with simple equations predicting the maximum wetland capacity in summer, so as to assist designers in sizing installations in tourist areas with increased summer populations. Furthermore, this methodology is further simplified, based on sensitivity analysis of the unit area requirements for wastewaters of various strengths, and various design conditions and performance criteria. In addition, comparison of the unit area requirements of FWS constructed wetland systems, subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetland systems and stabilization pond systems for wastewaters of various strengths and design conditions, provides designers with general guidelines concerning the preliminary selection between alternative natural treatment systems in areas where the use of natural systems is favored because of their low-cost, simple operation and high removal performance.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bachand, P. A. M. and Horne, A. J., 2000a, ‘Denitrification in constructed free-water surface wetlands: I. Very high nitrate removal rates in a macrocosm study’, Ecol. Eng. 14, 9–15.

  2. Bachand, P. A. M. and Horne, A. J., 2000b, ‘Denitrification in constructed free-water surface wetlands: II. Effects of vegetation and temperature’, Ecol. Eng. 14, 17–32.

  3. Chen, S., Wang, G. T., and Xue, S. K., 1999, ‘Modeling BOD removal in constructed wetlands with mixing cell method’, J. Environ. Eng. 125(1), 64–71.

  4. Dialynas, G. E., Kefalakis, N., Dialynas, E. G., and Angelakis, A. N., 2002, ‘Performance of the first free water surface constructed wetland in Crete, Greece’, in Proceedings of the IWA Regional Symposium on Water Recycling in Mediterranean Region, 26–29 September, Iraklio, Crete, Greece, pp. 371–378.

  5. Economopoulou, M. A. and Tsihrintzis, V. A., 2000, ‘Hydraulic design of constructed wetlands’, in Proceedings of the 8th National Conference of the Hellenic Hydrotechnical Society, 19–22 April, Athens, Greece, pp. 235–242 (in Greek).

  6. Economopoulou, M. A. and Tsihrintzis, V. A., 2003, ‘Design methodology and area sensitivity analysis of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands’, Water Resour. Manage. 17(2), 147–174.

  7. Economopoulou, M. A. and Tsihrintzis, V. A., 2004, ‘A Rapid method for design optimization and performance evaluation of stabilization ponds’, (submitted).

  8. Etnier, C. and Guterstam, B. (ed), 1997, Ecological Engineering for Wastewater Treatment, 2nd edn., Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, U.S.A.

  9. Hammer, D. A. (ed), 1989, Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment, Municipal, Industrial, Agricultural, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, U.S.A.

  10. Hammer, D. A., 1992, Creating Freshwater Wetlands, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, U.S.A.

  11. Kadlec, R. H., 1990, ‘Overland flow in wetlands: Vegetation resistance’, J. Hydraulic Eng., ASCE 116(5), 691–706.

  12. Kadlec, H. R. and Knight, R. L., 1996, Treatment Wetlands, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, U.S.A.

  13. Khatiwada, N. R. and Polprasert, C., 1999, ‘Kinetics of fecal coliform removal in constructed wetlands’, Water Sci. Technol. 40(3), 109–116.

  14. Mander, U. and Jenssen, P., 2002, Natural Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment in Cold Climates, WIT Press, Southampton, U.K.

  15. Mander, U. and Jenssen, P., 2003, Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment in Cold Climates, WIT Press, Southampton, U.K.

  16. Mandi, L., Bouhoum, K., and Ouazzani, N., 1998, ‘Application of constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment in an arid climate’, Water Sci. Technol. 38(1), 379–387.

  17. Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources, 1993, Administration Manual for the Minnesota Wetland Conservation Act, Wetland Conservation Act of 1991’, The Minnesota Association of Soil and Water Conservation Districts, St. Paul, MN, USA.

  18. G. A. Moshiri (ed), 1993, Constructed Wetlands for Water Quality Improvement, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, U.S.A.

  19. Mitsch, W. J. and Gosselink, J. G., 1986, Wetlands, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY, U.S.A.

  20. Mulamoottil, G., McBean, E. A., and Rovers, F., 1999, Constructed Wetlands for the Treatment of Landfill Leachates, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, U.S.A.

  21. Olson, R. K., 1993, Created and Natural Wetlands for Controling Nonpoint Source Pollution, C.K. Smoley-CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, U.S.A.

  22. Reed, S. C. and Brown, D., 1993, ‘Constructed wetland design – The second generation’, Natural System Digest, Water Environment Federation Digest Series.

  23. Reed, S. C., Crites, R. W., and Middlebrooks, E. J., 1995, Natural Systems for Waste Management and Treatment, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, Inc, New York, U.S.A.

  24. Reilly, J. F., Horne, A. J., and Miller, C. D., 2000, ‘Nitrate removal for a drinking water supply with large free-surface constructed wetlands prior to groundwater recharge’, Ecol. Eng., 14, 33–47.

  25. Sartoris, J. J., Thullen, J. S., Barber, L. B., and Salas, D. E., 2000, ‘Investigation of nitrogen transformations in a Southern California constructed wastewater treatment wetland’, Ecol. Eng. 14, 49–65.

  26. Schueler, T. R., 1992, Design of Stormwater Wetland Systems: Guidelines for Creating Diverse and Effective Stormwater Wetland Systems in the Mid-Atlantic Region, Department of Environmental Programs, Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments.

  27. Tchobanoglous, G. and Burton, F. L., 1991, Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal and Reuse, Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, NY, U.S.A.

  28. Tsihrintzis, V. A., 2001, ‘Discussion on variation of roughness coefficients for unsubmerged and submerged vegetation’, J. Hydraulic Eng., ASCE 127(3), 241–244.

  29. Tsihrintzis, V. A., John, D. L., and Tremblay, P. J., 1998, ‘Hydrodynamic modeling of wetlands for flood detention’, Water Resour. Manage. EWRA 12(4), 251–269.

  30. Tsihrintzis, V. A. and Madiedo, E. E., 2000, ‘Hydraulic resistance determination in marsh wetlands’, Water Resour. Manage. 14(4), 285–309.

  31. Tsihrintzis, V. A., Vasarhelyi, G. M., and Lipa, J., 1995a, ‘Hydrodynamic and constituent transport modeling of coastal wetlands’, J. Mar. Environ. Eng., Gordon and Beach Publishing Co., 1(4), 295–314.

  32. Tsihrintzis, V. A., Vasarhelyi, G. M., and Lipa, J., 1995b, ‘Multiobjective approaches in freshwater wetland restoration and design’, Water Int., IWRA 20(2), 98–105.

  33. Tsihrintzis, V. A., Vasarhelyi, G. M., and Lipa, J., 1996, ‘Ballona Wetland: A multi-objective salt marsh restoration plan’, Water, Mar. Energy, ICE, London, U.K. 118(2), 131–144.

  34. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), 1988, Design Manual: Constructed Wetlands and Aquatic Plant Systems for Municipal Wastewater Treatment. EPA/625/1-88/022. Cincinnati, OH, Environmental Protection Agency.

  35. WHO (World Health Organization), 1989, Health Guidelines for the Use of Wastewater in Agriculture and Aquaculture, Technical Report Series 778, World Health Organization, Geneva (1989).

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Economopoulou, M., Tsihrintzis, V. Design Methodology of Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands. Water Resour Manage 18, 541–565 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-004-6480-6

Download citation

Key words

  • design methodology
  • free water surface constructed wetlands
  • seasonal performance
  • sensitivity analysis
  • stabilization ponds
  • subsurface flow constructed wetlands
  • unit area requirement
  • wastewater treatment