Simple criteria, guidelines and models are established for free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland selection and preliminary sizing. The analysis employs models for FWS constructed wetland design, considering simultaneously the removal requirements and the hydraulics of the system. On the basis of these models, a step-by-step methodology is developed outlining the design procedure for new and performance evaluation for existing FWS constructed wetland systems. This methodology is combined with simple equations predicting the maximum wetland capacity in summer, so as to assist designers in sizing installations in tourist areas with increased summer populations. Furthermore, this methodology is further simplified, based on sensitivity analysis of the unit area requirements for wastewaters of various strengths, and various design conditions and performance criteria. In addition, comparison of the unit area requirements of FWS constructed wetland systems, subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetland systems and stabilization pond systems for wastewaters of various strengths and design conditions, provides designers with general guidelines concerning the preliminary selection between alternative natural treatment systems in areas where the use of natural systems is favored because of their low-cost, simple operation and high removal performance.
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Economopoulou, M., Tsihrintzis, V. Design Methodology of Free Water Surface Constructed Wetlands. Water Resour Manage 18, 541–565 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-004-6480-6
- design methodology
- free water surface constructed wetlands
- seasonal performance
- sensitivity analysis
- stabilization ponds
- subsurface flow constructed wetlands
- unit area requirement
- wastewater treatment