Atmospheric Deposition of Reactive Nitrogen on Turf Grassland in Central Japan: Comparison of the Contribution of Wet and Dry Deposition
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The atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen on turf grassland in Tsukuba, central Japan, was investigated from July 2003 to December 2004. The target components were ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite ions for wet deposition and gaseous ammonia, nitric and nitrous acids, and particulate ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite for dry deposition. Organic nitrogen was also evaluated by subtracting the amount of inorganic nitrogen from total nitrogen. A wet-only sampler and filter holders were used to collect precipitation and the atmospheric components, respectively. An inferential method was applied to calculate the dry deposition velocity of gases and particles, which involved the effects of surface wetness and ammonia volatilization through stomata on the dry deposition velocity. The mean fraction of the monthly wet to total deposition was different among chemical species; 37, 77, and 1% for ammoniacal, nitrate-, and nitrite-nitrogen, respectively. The annual deposition of inorganic nitrogen in 2004 was 47 and 48 mmol m−2 yr−1 for wet and dry deposition, respectively; 51% of atmospheric deposition was contributed by dry deposition. The annual wet deposition in 2004 was 20, 27, and 0.07 mmol m−2 yr−1, and the annual dry deposition in 2004 was 35, 7.4, and 5.4 mmol m−2 yr−1 for ammoniacal, nitrate-, and nitrite-nitrogen, respectively. Ammoniacal nitrogen was the most important reactive nitrogen because of its remarkable contribution to both wet and dry deposition. The median ratio of the organic nitrogen concentration to total nitrogen was 9.8, 17, and 15% for precipitation, gases, and particles, respectively.