Systematic Review of Motives for Episodic Volunteering

  • Jeff Dunn
  • Suzanne K. Chambers
  • Melissa K. Hyde
Original Paper

Abstract

Although episodic volunteers are a critical resource for many organisations, their motives for volunteering are poorly understood. A systematic review was conducted to describe empirical evidence about motives for episodic volunteering (EV) across sectors (sport, tourism, events, health and social welfare). Identified EV motives were then categorised using core functions from the Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI) for comparison across studies. Twelve databases (1990–December 2014) were searched. Thirty-three English language studies included results describing EV motives. Studies were predominantly cross-sectional, quantitative, event-based and originating in North America. Measurement of motives was also inconsistent. Common motives were helping others and socialising. Physical challenge and healing motives were specific to sport-based events and charity sport events, respectively. Over 80 % of motives were classified using VFI functions, particularly enhancement, values and social functions. The VFI supplemented by qualitative work may be efficacious to further identify EV motives and retention strategies.

Keywords

Episodic volunteering Systematic review Motives Volunteer Functions Inventory 

Résumé

Bien que le bénévolat occasionnel soit une ressource essentielle pour de nombreuses organisations, les motivations pour faire du bénévolat sont mal comprises. Une étude systématique a été menée pour décrire les preuves empiriques sur les motivations au bénévolat occasionnel dans tous les secteurs (sport, tourisme, évènements, santé et protection sociale). Les motivations identifiées au bénévolat occasionnel ont été ensuite classées à l’aide de fonctions de base de l’inventaire des fonctions du bénévolat à des fins de comparaison entre différentes études. Des recherches ont été menées dans douze bases de données (de 1990 à décembre 2014). Trente-trois études rédigées en anglais ont inclus des résultats décrivant les motivations au bénévolat occasionnel. Ces études ont été essentiellement transversales, quantitatives, basées sur des évènements et issues d’Amérique du Nord. La mesure des motivations était également contradictoire. Les motivations communes aidaient les autres et la vie sociale. L’effort physique et des motivations pour guérir étaient spécifiques respectivement aux évènements axés sur le sport et aux évènements caritatifs sportifs. Plus de 80 % des motivations ont été classées à l’aide des fonctions de l’inventaire des fonctions du bénévolat, particulièrement la mise en valeur, les valeurs et les fonctions sociales. L’inventaire des fonctions du bénévolat complété par un travail qualitatif peut être efficace pour mieux identifier les motivations au bénévolat occasionnel et les stratégies de rétention.

Zusammenfassung

Obwohl temporäre ehrenamtliche Mitarbeiter für viele Organisationen eine wichtige Ressource darstellen, werden deren Motive für eine ehrenamtliche Tätigkeit nicht wirklich verstanden. Es wurde eine systematische Prüfung durchgeführt, um die empirischen Daten zu den Motiven für eine temporäre ehrenamtliche Tätigkeit in verschiedenen Bereichen (Sport, Tourismus, Veranstaltungen, Gesundheits- und Sozialwesen) zu beschreiben. Die herausgestellten Motive für eine temporäre ehrenamtliche Tätigkeit wurden sodann beruhend auf den Kernfunktionen aus der VFI-Skala (Volunteer Functions Inventory) zum Vergleich zwischen verschiedenen Studien in Kategorien unterteilt. Man durchsuchte zwölf Datenbanken (1990 bis Dezember 2014). 33 Studien in englischer Sprache enthielten Ergebnisse, die die Motive für eine temporäre ehrenamtliche Tätigkeit beschrieben. Es handelte sich hauptsächlich um Querschnittsstudien, quantitative, ereignisbasierte und nordamerikanische Studien. Die Messung der Motive war uneinheitlich. Verbreitete Motive waren, anderen zu helfen und Kontakte zu knüpfen. Physische Herausforderungen und die Heilung waren jeweils Motive bei Sportveranstaltungen und gemeinnützigen Sportveranstaltungen. Über 80 % der Motive wurden mit Hilfe der VFI-Funktionen klassifiziert, dabei konzentrierte man sich vornehmlich auf die Funktionen Verbesserung und Werte sowie soziale Funktionen. Die VFI-Skala ergänzt durch eine qualitative Arbeit kann zur weiteren Bestimmung von Motiven zur temporären ehrenamtlichen Arbeit und der Entwicklung von Erhaltungsstrategien dienlich sein.

Resumen

Aunque los voluntarios episódicos son un recurso crítico para muchas organizaciones, sus motivos para ser voluntarios no se entienden demasiado bien. Se realizó una revisión sistemática para describir la evidencia empírica sobre los motivos del voluntariado episódico (EV, del inglés episodic volunteering) en diferentes sectores (deporte, turismo, eventos, salud y bienestar social). Los motivos del EV fueron clasificados después utilizando funciones centrales del Inventario de Funciones del Voluntario (VFI, del inglés Volunteer Functions Inventory) para su comparación entre estudios. Se investigaron doce bases de datos (1990-diciembre 2014). Treinta y tres estudios en idioma inglés incluyeron resultados que describían motivos de EV. Los estudios fueron predominantemente transversales, cuantitativos, basados en eventos, y se originaron en Norteamérica. La medición de los motivos también fue contradictoria. Los motivos comunes ayudaron a otros y socializaron. El desafío físico y los motivos de curación fueron específicos de los eventos basados en deportes y los eventos deportivos benéficos, respectivamente. Se clasificaron más del 80 % de los motivos utilizando funciones VFI, en particular, funciones de mejora, de valores y sociales. El VFI complementado con un trabajo cualitativo puede ser eficaz para seguir identificando motivos de EV y estrategias de retención.

摘要

尽管插话式志愿者是许多组织的主要来源,但对其志愿动机的了解很少。我们进行了系统的回顾,从而描述对跨各种领域(体育、旅游、活动、健康和社会福利)的插话式志愿 (EV) 的动机。然后,使用志愿者职能库存 (VFI) 对已确定的EV动机进行分类。搜索了12个数据库(1990年至2014年12月)。33个英语研究包括介绍EV动机的结果。这些研究主要跨领域、量化、基于事实并来自北美洲。动机的测量不一致。常见的动机是帮助其他人和社交。身体挑战和治愈动机分别特定于体育活动和慈善体育活动。使用VFI职能分类了超过80 %的动机,尤其是增强、价值和社会职能。VFI加上定性工作可能对于进一步确定EV动机和保留策略非常有用。

要約

一時的なボランティアは多くの組織にとって重要なリソースであるが、ボランティアの動機については十分に理解されていない。業種 (スポーツ、観光、イベント、健康・福祉)における一時的なボランティア(EV)の動機について実証的証拠を提示するために、体系的な見直しを行われた。識別された EVの動機では、研究の比較におけるボランティア機能インベントリ (VFI) からのコア機能を使用して分類した。12のデータベース (1990年~2014年12 月) を検索した。33 の英語研究が EV の動機を説明する結果に含まれた。研究では、主に横断的、定量的、イベント・ベース、北アメリカの組織を取り扱った。動機の測定は一貫性がなかった。共通の動機は他人の支援と交流だった。物理的な問題点と癒しの動機を、スポーツ・ベースのイベントとチャリティー・スポーツ・イベントに特定した。以上の 80 %の動機 は VFI 関数、特に強化・価値 を用いて分類された。質的な業務によって補完される VFI は、 EVの 動機および保持における戦略識別のために効果的な可能性があるといえる。

ملخص

على الرغم من أن المتطوعين على فترات متقطعة هم مورد حاسم للعديد من المنظمات دوافعهم للعمل التطوعي غير مفهوم. قد أجريت مراجعة منهجية لوصف الأدلة التجريبية حول الدوافع للعمل التطوعي على فترات متقطعة (EV) في مختلف القطاعات (الرياضة، السياحة، الأحداث، الصحة والرعاية الإجتماعية). تم تحديد دوافع العمل التطوعي على فترات متقطعة (EV) ثم تصنيفه بإستخدام وظائف أساسية من قائمة جرد وظائف المتطوعين (VFI) للمقارنة بين الدراسات. تم البحث في إثني عشر من قواعد البيانات (1990 إلى ديسمبر/كانون الأول 2014). تضمنت نتائج ثلاثة وثلاثون دراسات باللغة الإنجليزية تصف دوافع العمل التطوعي على فترات متقطعة (EV). كانت الدراسات في الغالب تحليل مقطعي للبيانات، كمي، على أساس الحدث، والتي تنشأ في أمريكا الشمالية. قياس الدوافع يتعارض أيضا˝. الدوافع المشتركة مساعدة الآخرين والتنشئة الإجتماعية. التحديات البدنية ودوافع الشفاء محددة للأحداث القائمة على الرياضة والأحداث الرياضية الخيرية، على التوالي. تم تصنيف أكثر من 80٪ من الدوافع بإستخدام دور قائمة جرد وظائف المتطوعين (VFI)، خاصة تعزيز القيم والمهام الإجتماعية. إكمال قائمة جرد وظائف المتطوعين (VFI) بالعمل النوعي قد يكون فعال لتحديد المزيد من دوافع العمل التطوعي على فترات متقطعة (EV) وإستراتيجيات الإحتفاظ بهم.

References

The asterisk identifies articles included in the systematic review

  1. * Allison, L. D., Okun, M. A., & Dutridge, K. S. (2002). Assessing volunteer motives: A comparison of an open-ended probe and Likert rating scales. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 12(4), 243–255. doi:10.1002/casp.677.
  2. American Cancer Society. (2014). Learn about relay for life. Retrieved May 15, 2014 from http://www.relayforlife.org/learn/index.
  3. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2006). 4441.0 voluntary work, Australia 2006. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
  4. * Bang, H., Alexandris, K., & Ross, S. D. (2008). Validation of the revised volunteer motivations scale for international sporting events (VMS-ISE) at the Athens 2004 olympic games. Event Management, 12, 119–131. doi:10.3727/152599509789659759.
  5. * Beder, J., & Fast, J. (2008). Episodic volunteering: Why people walk/run for charity. The International Journal of Volunteer Administration, 25(3), 3–13.Google Scholar
  6. * Bennett, R., Mousley, W., Kitchin, P., & Ali-Choudhury, R. (2007). Motivations for participating in charity-affiliated sporting events. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 6(2), 155–178. doi:10.1362/147539207X223375.
  7. * Brayley, N., Obst, P., White, K. M., Lewis, I. M., Warburton, J., & Spencer, N. M. (2014a). Exploring the validity and predictive power of an extended volunteer functions inventory within the context of episodic skilled volunteering by retirees. Journal of Community Psychology, 42(1), 1–18. doi:10.1002/jcop.21583.
  8. * Brayley, N., Obst, P. L., White, K. M., Lewis, I. M., Warburton, J., & Spencer, N. M. (2014b). Examining the predictive value of combining the theory of planned behaviour and the volunteer functions inventory. Australian Journal of Psychology,. doi:10.1111/ajpy.12078.
  9. Bryen, L. M., & Madden, K. M. (2006). Bounce-back of episodic volunteers: What makes episodic volunteers return? Working Paper no. CPNS 32: QUT.Google Scholar
  10. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2014). Volunteering in the United States2013. Washington: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved April 15, 2014 from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/volun.nr0.htm.
  11. * Campbell, A. (2009). The importance of being valued: Solo ‘grey nomads’ as volunteers at the National Folk Festival. Annals of Leisure Research, 12(3–4), 277–294. doi:10.1080/11745398.2009.9686825.
  12. Clary, E. G., & Snyder, M. (1999). The motivations to volunteer theoretical and practical considerations. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8(5), 156–159. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.00037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clary, E. G., Snyder, M., Ridge, R. D., Copeland, J., Stukas, A. A., Haugen, J., & Miene, P. (1998). Understanding and assessing the motivations of volunteers: A functional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1516. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.6.1516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cnaan, R. A., & Goldberg-Glen, R. S. (1991). Measuring motivation to volunteer in human services. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 27(3), 269–284. doi:10.1177/0021886391273003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cnaan, R. A., & Handy, F. (2005). Towards understanding episodic volunteering. Vrijwillige Inzet Onderzocht [Voluntary Effort Studied], 2(1), 29–35.Google Scholar
  16. Cohen, M., & Numa, M. (2011). Posttraumatic growth in breast cancer survivors: A comparison of volunteers and non-volunteers. Psycho-Oncology, 20(1), 69–76. doi:10.1002/pon.1709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Corporation for National and Community Service. (2013). Volunteering and civic engagement in the United States: Trends and Highlights Overview. Retrieved April 27, 2014 from http://www.volunteeringinamerica.gov/national.
  18. * Cuskelly, G., Auld, C., Harrington, M., & Coleman, D. (2004). Predicting the behavioral dependability of sport event volunteers. Event Management, 9(1–2), 1–2. doi:10.3727/1525995042781011.
  19. * Dwyer, P. C., Bono, J. E., Snyder, M., Nov, O., & Berson, Y. (2013). Sources of volunteer motivation: Transformational leadership and personal motives influence volunteer outcomes. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 24(2), 181–205. doi:10.1002/nml.21084.
  20. Edwards, H. C. (2007). Episodic volunteering and teens: What message are we sending. Vrijwillige Inzet Onderzocht [Voluntary Effort Studied], 4(1), 43–50.Google Scholar
  21. * Filo, K., Funk, D. C., & O’Brien, D. (2008). It’s really not about the bike: Exploring attraction and attachment to the events of the Lance Armstrong Foundation. Journal of Sport Management, 22(5), 501–525.Google Scholar
  22. * Filo, K., Funk, D. C., & O’Brien, D. (2011). Examining motivation for charity sport event participation: A comparison of recreation-based and charity-based motives. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(4), 491–518.Google Scholar
  23. * Filo, K., Groza, M. D., & Fairley, S. (2012). The role of belief in making a difference in enhancing attachment to a charity sport event. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 24(2), 123–140. doi:10.1080/10495142.2012.679165.
  24. Gehanno, J.-F., Rollin, L., & Darmoni, S. (2013). Is the coverage of Google Scholar enough to be used alone for systematic reviews. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 13(7). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/1413/1477, doi:10.1186/1472-6947-13-7.
  25. * Güntert, S. T., Neufeind, M., & Wehner, T. (2014). Motives for event volunteering: Extending the functional approach. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly,. doi:10.1177/0899764014527797.
  26. * Hamm, S. M., Maclean, J. C., & Misener, K. E. (2008). Understanding the commitment and motivation of episodic volunteers for a large sporting event. The International Journal of Volunteer Administration, 25(3), 26–38.Google Scholar
  27. * Handy, F., Brodeur, N., & Cnaan, R. A. (2006). Summer on the Island: Episodic volunteering. Voluntary Action, 7(3), 31–46.Google Scholar
  28. Harrison, D. A. (1995). Volunteer motivation and attendance decisions: Competitive theory testing in multiple samples from a homeless shelter. Journal of Applied Psychology,. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.80.3.371.Google Scholar
  29. * Hendriks, M., & Peelen, E. (2013). Personas in action: Linking event participation motivation to charitable giving and sports. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 18(1), 60–72. doi:10.1002/nvsm.1458.
  30. Higgins, J. W., & Lauzon, L. (2003). Finding the fun in fun runs: Exploring physical activity events as fundraising tools in the non-profit sector. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 8(4), 363–377. doi:10.1002/nvsm.226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. * Holmes, K. (2014). ‘It fitted in with our lifestyle’: An investigation into episodic volunteering in the tourism sector. Annals of Leisure Research, 17(4), 443–459. doi:10.1080/11745398.2014.965183.
  32. Hsieh, H. F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277–1288. doi:10.1177/1049732305276687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. * Hustinx, L., Haski-Leventhal, D., & Handy, F. (2008). One of a kind? Comparing episodic and regular volunteers at the Philadelphia Ronald McDonald House. IJOVA: International Journal of Volunteer Administration, 25(3), 50–66.Google Scholar
  34. * Hyde, M. K., Dunn, J., Bax, C., & Chambers, S. K. (2014a). Episodic volunteering and retention: An integrated theoretical approach. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly,. doi:10.1177/0899764014558934.
  35. Hyde, M. K., Dunn, J., Scuffham, P. A., & Chambers, S. K. (2014b). A systematic review of episodic volunteering in public health and other contexts. BMC Public Health, 14, 992. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. * Leonard, R., & Onyx, J. (2007). Constructing short episodic volunteering experiences: Matching grey nomads and the needs of small country towns. Third Sector Review, 13(2), 121–139.Google Scholar
  37. * Leonard, R., & Onyx, J. (2009). Volunteer tourism: The interests and motivations of grey nomads. Annals of Leisure Research, 12(3–4), 315–332. doi:10.1080/11745398.2009.9686827.
  38. Macduff, N. (2005). Societal changes and the rise of the episodic volunteer. Emerging Areas of Volunteering, 1, 49–61.Google Scholar
  39. Macduff, N. (2008). Episodic Volunteers… A fleeting species? International Journal of Volunteer Administration, 25(3), 89–93.Google Scholar
  40. Mannino, C., Snyder, M., & Omoto, A. M. (2011). Why do people get involved? Motivations for volunteerism and other forms of action. In D. Dunning (Ed.), Social motivation (pp. 127–146). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  41. * Mayer, B. W., & McNary, L. D. (2007). The relationship among organizational-based self-esteem and various factors motivating volunteers. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 36(2), 327–340. doi:10.1177/0899764006296053.
  42. Merrill, M. V. (2006). Global Trends and the challenges for volunteering. International Journal of Volunteer Administration, 24(1), 9–14.Google Scholar
  43. Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & The PRISMA Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(7), e1000097. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-151-4-200908180-00135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Morris, B. A., Campbell, M., Dwyer, M., Dunn, J., & Chambers, S. K. (2011). Survivor identity and post-traumatic growth after participating in challenge-based peer-support programmes. British Journal of Health Psychology, 16(3), 660–674. doi:10.1348/2044-8287.002004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. * Pauline, G., & Pauline, J. S. (2009). Volunteer motivation and demographic influences at a professional tennis event. Team Performance Management, 15(3/4), 172–184. doi:10.1108/13527590910964946.
  46. Penner, L. A. (2002). Dispositional and organizational influences on sustained volunteerism: An interactionist perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 58(3), 447–467. doi:10.1111/1540-4560.00270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Productivity Commission. (2010). Contribution of the not-for-profit sector. Research Report, Canberra, Australia.Google Scholar
  48. * Rundio, A., Heere, B., & Newland, B. (2014). Cause-related versus non cause-related sports events: Differentiating endurance events through a comparison of athlete’s motives. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 23(1), 17–26.Google Scholar
  49. Safrit, R. D., & Merrill, M. V. (2002). Management implications of contemporary trends in volunteerism in the United States and Canada. Journal of Volunteer Administration, 20(2), 12–23.Google Scholar
  50. * Scott, A., & Solomon, P. J. (2003). The marketing of cause-related events: A study of participants as Consumers. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 11(2), 43–66. doi:10.1300/J054v11n02_03.
  51. Smith, J. A., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. (2009). Interpretative phenomenological analysis: Theory method and research. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  52. * Smith, K., Holmes, K., Haski-Leventhal, D., Cnaan, R. A., Handy, F., & Brudney, J. L. (2010). Motivations and benefits of student volunteering: Comparing regular, occasional, and non-volunteers in five countries. Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research, 1(1), 65–81.Google Scholar
  53. * Snelgrove, R., & Wood, L. (2010). Attracting and leveraging visitors at a charity cycling event. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 15(4), 269–285. doi:10.1080/14775085.2010.533918.
  54. Snyder, M., & Omoto, A. M. (2008). Volunteerism: Social issues perspectives and social policy implications. Social Issues and Policy Review, 2(1), 1–36. doi:10.1111/j.1751-2409.2008.00009.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. * Taylor, R., & Shanka, T. (2008). Cause for event: Not-for-profit marketing through participant sports events. Journal of Marketing Management, 24(9–10), 945–958. doi:10.1362/026725708X381984.
  56. Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundation and empirical evidence. Psychological Inquiry, 15(1), 1–18. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli1501_01.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. The Terry Fox Foundation. (2014). Mission statement and history. Retrieved May 7th, 2014, from http://www.terryfox.org/TerryFox/Mission_Statement.html.
  58. Tough Mudder. (2014). What is Tough Mudder? Retrieved May 15th, 2014, from https://toughmudder.com/events/what-is-tough-mudder.
  59. Vézina, M., & Crompton, S. (2013). Volunteering in Canada—Catalogue no. 11-008. Canadian Social Trends, 33, 1–21.Google Scholar
  60. * Wharf Higgins, J., & Hodgins, A. (2008). The grape escape—A FUNdraising bike tour for the multiple sclerosis society. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 19(2), 49–67. doi:10.1300/J054v19n02_03.
  61. Wilson, J. (2012). Volunteerism research a review essay. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 41(2), 176–212. doi:10.1177/0899764011434558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. * Wollebaek, D., Skirstad, B., & Hanstad, D. V. (2014). Between two volunteer cultures: Social composition and motivation among volunteers at the 2010 test event for the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 49(1), 22–41. doi:10.1177/1012690212453355.
  63. * Won, D., & Park, M. (2010). Motivating factors influencing college students’ participation in charity sport events. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 8(3), 296–321. doi:10.1504/IJSMM.2010.03751.
  64. * Won, D., Park, M., Lee, K.-Y., & Chung, J. (2011). Factors affecting participation in charity sport events involving a low intensive physical activity. International Journal of Leisure and Tourism Marketing, 2(3), 248–257. doi:10.1504/IJLTM.2011.042289.
  65. * Won, D., Park, M., & Turner, B. (2010). Motivations for participating in health related charity sport events. Journal of Venue and Event Management, 1(2), 17–44.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeff Dunn
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Suzanne K. Chambers
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Melissa K. Hyde
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Cancer Council QueenslandSpring HillAustralia
  2. 2.Griffith Health InstituteGriffith UniversityGold CoastAustralia
  3. 3.School of Social ScienceUniversity of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia
  4. 4.Prostate Cancer Foundation of AustraliaSt LeonardsAustralia
  5. 5.Health and Wellness Institute, Edith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia
  6. 6.Centre for Clinical ResearchUniversity of QueenslandHerstonAustralia

Personalised recommendations