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Volunteers’ Reactions to Psychological Contract Fulfillment in Terms of Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect Behavior

  • Tim VantilborghEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Psychological contract fulfillment—an individual’s perception of the degree to which an organization fulfills its promises—is critical to understand how people behave in exchange relationships. I examine if fulfillment explains exit, (aggressive and considerate) voice, loyalty, and neglect behaviors of volunteers. Moreover, I test whether these relationships are mediated by violation and trust. Data were collected from 215 volunteers using an online survey and analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that fulfillment related negatively to exit, aggressive voice, and neglect behavior and positively to considerate voice behavior. Mediation analyses confirmed that violation and trust acted as mediators. I conclude that fulfillment is critical to understand why volunteers display exit, (aggressive and considerate) voice, and neglect behavior. Moreover, I propose that violation and trust are able to explain how fulfillment is related to these behaviors, through a “hot” and “cool” response system, respectively.

Keywords

Psychological contract Exit–voice–loyalty–neglect framework Volunteers Violation Trust 

Résumé

Le sentiment d’accomplissement de contrat psychologique (la perception par un individu du niveau de tenue des promesses d’une organisation) est un élément primordial pour comprendre les comportements humains dans les relations d’échange. J’examine ici dans quelle mesure ce sentiment d’accomplissement explique les comportements de mise en retrait, de prise de parole (agressive et bienveillante), de loyauté et de négligence des bénévoles. De plus, je vérifie si ces relations sont arbitrées par des sentiments d’abus et de confiance. Les données utilisées ont été collectées auprès de 215 bénévoles participant à une étude en ligne, et analysées au moyen de méthodes de modélisation par équations structurelles. Les résultats indiquent que le sentiment d’accomplissement est corrélé de manière négative aux comportements de mise en retrait, de prise de parole agressive et de négligence, et de manière positive au comportement de prise de parole bienveillante. Les analyses de médiation confirment que les sentiments d’abus et de confiance agissent comme facteurs d’arbitrage. Je conclus que le sentiment d’accomplissement est primordial afin de comprendre pourquoi les bénévoles adoptent des comportements de mise en retrait, de prise de parole (agressive et bienveillante) et de négligence. Je propose en outre l’idée que les sentiments d’abus et de confiance permettent d’expliquer le lien qui existe entre le sentiment d’accomplissement et ces comportements, ce que j’illustre par un système de réaction de type « chaud » et « froid », respectivement.

Zusammenfassung

Die Erfüllung eines psychologischen Vertrags - das Empfinden einer Person, inwieweit eine Organisation ihre Versprechen einhält - ist für das Verständnis des Verhaltens von Personen in Austauschbeziehungen sehr wichtig. Ich untersuche, ob die Erfüllung die Verhaltensweisen von ehrenamtlichen Mitarbeitern, wie die Beendigung ihrer Tätigkeit, (aggressive und taktvolle) Kommunikation, Loyalität und Nachlässigkeit, erklärt. Des Weiteren untersuche ich, ob die Variablen Vertragsverletzung und Vertrauen Mediatoren in diesen Beziehungen sind. Es wurden Daten von 215 ehrenamtlich Tätigen in einer Online-Befragung gesammelt und mittels des Strukturgleichungsmodells analysiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass eine Vertragserfüllung in negativer Beziehung zur Tätigkeitsbeendigung, zu aggressiver Kommunikation und zur Nachlässigkeit und in positiver Beziehung zu taktvoller Kommunikation standen. Mediationsanalysen bestätigten, dass die Variablen Vertragsverletzung und Vertrauen als Mediatoren fungierten. Ich komme zu der Schlussfolgerung, dass die Vertragserfüllung für das Verständnis ausschlaggebend ist, warum ehrenamtliche Mitarbeiter ihre Tätigkeit beenden, (aggressiv bzw. taktvoll) kommunizieren oder nachlässig handeln. Darüber hinaus behaupte ich, dass anhand der Variablen Vertragsverletzung und Vertrauen jeweils mit Hilfe eines „hitzigen“und „gelassenen“Reaktionssystems erklärt werden kann, in welcher Beziehung die Vertragserfüllung zu diesen Verhaltensweisen steht.

Resumen

El cumplimiento del contrato psicológico - una percepción individual del grado en el que una organización cumple sus promesas - es crítico para comprender cómo las personas se comportan en las relaciones de intercambio. Examino si el cumplimiento explica los comportamientos de salida, voz (agresiva y considerada), lealtad y abandono de los voluntarios. Asimismo, examino si estas relaciones se ven mediatizadas por la violación y la confianza. Los datos fueron recopilados de 215 voluntarios utilizando una encuesta online y se analizaron utilizando el modelo de ecuación estructural. Los resultados indicaron que el cumplimiento se relacionaba negativamente con los comportamientos de salida, voz agresiva y abandono y positivamente con el comportamiento de voz considerada. Los análisis de mediación confirmaron que la violación y la confianza actuaban como mediadores. Concluyo que el cumplimiento es crítico para entender por qué los voluntarios muestran comportamientos de salida, voz (agresiva y considerada) y abandono. Asimismo, propongo que la violación y la confianza pueden explicar cómo el cumplimiento se relaciona con estos comportamientos, mediante un sistema de respuesta “caliente” y “frío”, respectivamente.

摘要

心理契约履行-个人对组织履行其承诺的感知-对于了解人们在交换关系中的反应非常关键。我检查了履行是否解释了志愿者的退出,(侵略性和体贴的)言语、忠诚度和疏忽行为。此外,我还测试了这些关系是否被违反和信任所调解。我使用了在线调查收集215位志愿者的数据,并使用结构方程建模进行分析。结果表明,履行与负面退出、侵略性言语和疏忽行为以及积极和体贴言语行为相关。调解分析确认了违反和信任是调解因素。我的结论是,履行对于了解志愿者展示退出,(侵略性和体贴的)言语和疏忽行为非常关键。此外,我分别通过“热”和“冷”反应系统,建议违反和信任能够解释履行如何与这些行为相关。

抽象的な

心理的な契約の履行、つまり組織が履行する段階における個々の認識では、人々が関係の変化においてどのように行動するかを理解することが重要である。達成感においては、ボランティアの活動停止、(積極的かつ思いやりのある) 考え方、忠誠心、ボランティア活動の放棄が明らかになるかを調査する。また、これらの関係が違反行為と信頼によって仲介されるかどうかを検証する。データはオンライン調査で行い、ボランティア215団体から回収して、構造方程式モデリングを用いて分析する。結果から、達成感は、活動停止、積極的な考え方、活動の放棄に否定的に関連することがわかった。思いやりのある考え方には肯定的でことがわかった。達成感においては、なぜボランティアが活動停止、(積極的かつ思いやりのある) 考え方、活動の放棄を表すかを理解することが重要である。さらに、それぞれの「ホット」で「クール」な.応答システムを通して、達成感がどのようにこれらの行動に関連するかを違反行為と信頼から説明する。

ملخص

تصورات العقد النفسي التي تفي بفهم الفرد و التي تفي المنظمات بوعودها أمر بالغ الأهمية لفهم كيف يتصرف الناس في علاقات التبادل. أنا أفحص إذا كان الإنجاز يفسر خروج، صوت (العدوانية و الحرص على عدم الأذى) ، والولاء ، وسلوكيات الإهمال من المتطوعين. علاوة على ذلك ، أنا أفحص إذا كانت هذه العلاقات تتم بوساطة من خلال العنف والثقة. قد تم جمع البيانات من 215 متطوع بإستخدام إستطلاع الرأي على الإنترنت و تحليله بإستخدام نماذج المعادلة الهيكلية. أشارت النتائج إلى أن الوفاء يؤثر سلبا˝ على الخروج ، الصوت العدواني وسلوك الإهمال بشكل إيجابي في صوت سلوك حريص. تحليل الوساطة أكدت أن العنف والثقة بدور الوسطاء. أستخلص إلى أن تحقيق الإنجاز أمر بالغ الأهمية لفهم لماذا عرض المتطوعين الخروج، صوت (العدوانية والحرص على عدم الأذى) ، سلوك الإهمال. علاوة على ذلك ، أقترح أن العنف و الثقة قادرون على شرح كيف يرتبط الوفاء بهذه السلوكيات ، من خلال نظام الإستجابة “الساخنة “ و “الباردة “ على التوالي.

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Copyright information

© International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Work and Organizational PsychologyVrije Universiteit BrusselBrusselsBelgium

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