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Engaged or Connected? A Perspective of the Motivational Pathway of the Job Demands-Resources Model in Volunteers Working for Nonprofit Organizations

  • Jasmine-Yan HuynhEmail author
  • Jacques C. Metzer
  • Anthony H. Winefield
Original Paper

Abstract

There is a paucity of research on volunteers compared with paid workers. The aim of this study is to examine the mediating roles of work engagement and connectedness simultaneously in the motivational pathway of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Survey data were collected from 471 volunteer participants and analysed using structural equation modelling methods. Contrary to expectation, the findings did not show that engagement mediates the relationship between job resources and volunteer satisfaction (1), between job resources and determination to continue (2), and between job resources and health (3). The findings, did however, show that connectedness mediates the relationship between job resources and volunteer satisfaction (4), between job resources and determination to continue (5), and between job resources and health (6). These findings add support to the motivational pathway of the JD-R theory to understand volunteer wellbeing and retention in health care organizations, but suggest that the theory may be expanded to include connectedness as a mediator.

Keywords

Work engagement Connectedness Volunteers Job demands-resources model 

Résumé

Les bénévoles font nettement moins l’objet de recherche que les travailleurs rémunérés. L’objectif de cette étude est d’examiner les rôles de médiation qu’exercent simultanément l’implication et la connexité au travail sur la dimension motivationnelle du modèle exigences-ressources du travail (Job Demands-Resources ou JD-R). Les données de l’étude ont été collectées auprès de 471 participants bénévoles et analysées au moyen de méthodes de modélisation par équations structurelles. Contrairement à ce à quoi l’on pouvait s’attendre, les résultats ne montrent pas le rôle de médiateur de l’engagement pour la relation entre les ressources au travail et la satisfaction des bénévoles (1), ni entre les ressources au travail et la détermination à poursuivre (2), ni entre les ressources au travail et la santé (3). Ils indiquent cependant que la connexité constitue un médiateur de la relation entre les ressources au travail et la satisfaction des bénévoles (4), entre les ressources au travail et la détermination à poursuivre (5) et entre les ressources au travail et la santé (6). Ces conclusions donnent du crédit à la voie motivationnelle de la théorie JD-R pour comprendre la satisfaction et la pérennité de l’engagement des bénévoles dans les organisations de soins médicaux, mais suggère que la théorie pourrait être étendue pour inclure la connexité comme médiateur.

Zusammenfassung

Es herrscht ein Forschungsmangel im Hinblick auf den Vergleich zwischen ehrenamtlich Tätigen und bezahlten Arbeitskräften. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie ist es, die vermittelnden Rollen sowohl des Arbeitsengagements als auch der Verbundenheit auf dem Motivationsweg des Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) Modells zu untersuchen. Es wurden 471 freiwillige Teilnehmer befragt und ihre Antworten nach den Methoden des Strukturgleichungsmodells analysiert. Entgegen den Erwartungen ließen die Ergebnisse nicht erkennen, dass das Engagement in der Beziehung zwischen den Arbeitsressourcen und der Zufriedenheit der ehrenamtlich Tätigen (1), den Arbeitsressourcen und der Entschlossenheit zur fortdauernden Tätigkeit (2) und den Arbeitsressourcen und der Gesundheit (3) eine vermittelnde Rolle spielt. Allerdings zeigten die Ergebnisse sehr wohl, dass die Verbundenheit in der Beziehung zwischen den Arbeitsressourcen und der Zufriedenheit der ehrenamtlich Tätigen (4), den Arbeitsressourcen und der Entschlossenheit zur fortdauernden Tätigkeit (5) und den Arbeitsressourcen und der Gesundheit (6) eine Rolle spielt. Die Ergebnisse unterstützen den Motivationsweg der JD-R-Theorie zum Verständnis des Wohlbefindens und der Bindung ehrenamtlicher Mitarbeiter in Organisationen im Gesundheitswesen, weisen jedoch darauf hin, dass die Theorie erweitert werden kann, um die Verbundenheit als vermittelnde Rolle einzuschließen.

Resumen

Existe una escasez de investigación sobre voluntarios en comparación a trabajadores pagados. El objetivo del presente estudio es examinar los papeles de mediación del compromiso laboral y la conectividad simultáneamente en la vía motivacional del modelo de demandas-recursos laborales (JD-R, del inglés Job Demands-Resources). Los datos de la encuesta se recopilaron a partir de 471 participantes voluntarios y se analizaron utilizando métodos con modelos de ecuaciones estructurales. Al contrario de lo que se esperaba, los hallazgos no mostraron que el compromiso influya en la relación entre recursos laborales y la satisfacción del voluntario (1), entre recursos laborales y la determinación para continuar (2), y entre recursos laborales y la salud (3). Sin embargo, los hallazgos sí mostraron que la conectividad influye en la relación entre recursos laborales y la satisfacción del voluntario (4), entre recursos laborales y la determinación para continuar (5), y entre recursos laborales y la salud (6). Estos hallazgos apoyan la vía motivacional de la teoría de demandas-recursos laborales (JD-R) para comprender el bienestar y la retención de voluntarios en las organizaciones de asistencia sanitaria, pero sugieren que la teoría puede ser ampliada para que incluya la conectividad como mediador.

摘要

在志愿者与有偿工作者的比较方面,目前所做研究甚少。本研究之目的在于,同时检验在工作要求-资源(JD-R)模型中工作动力路径中,工作投入度(work engagement)与联结度(connectedness)两者的调和作用。研究者搜集了 471 位志愿参与者的数据,并运用结构化等式模型方式对其进行了研究。与预期相反,研究结果并未显示工作投入度调和了:工作资源与志愿者满意度之间的联系(1);工作资源与继续投入的决心之间的联系(2);工作资源与健康之间的联系(3)。不过,研究结果却的确显示联结度调和了:工作资源与志愿者满意度之间的联系(4);工作资源与继续投入的决心之间的联系(5);工作资源与健康之间的联系(6)。这些结果为 JD-R 理论中的工作动力路径理论提供了新的论据,有助于充分了解保健机构中志愿者福利和队伍稳定问题,不过另一方面,也说明了这一理论需要进行扩充,以便将联结度作为一个调和因素纳入其中。

要約

賃金労働者と比較したボランティア研究はわずかである。本研究の目的は、ジョブ・デマンド-リソース(JD-R)モデルの動機づけの過程において雇用の確約と連結性を同時に仲介する役割を調査することである。構造方程式モデリングの技法を用いて、471人のボランティア関係者から調査データを回収して分析した。期待とは裏腹に、調査結果からは (1)ジョブ・リソースとボランティアの満足度、(2)ジョブ・リソースを継続する決定、(3)ジョブ・リソースと健康との関係を仲介する関わりは見られなかった。しかしながら調査結果では、(4)ジョブ・リソースと満足度、(5)ジョブ・リソースを継続する決定、(6)ジョブ・リソースと健康との関係を仲介する連結性が示された。これらの調査結果は、ボランティアの福祉と健康管理機構の維持を理解するために、JD-R理論における動機づけの過程をサポートするが、仲介者が連結性を持つ理論の展開を提案する。

ملخص

هناك ندرة في البحوث على المتطوعين مقارنة مع العاملين بأجر. الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو فحص أدوار الوساطة في الإشتراك في عمل والترابط في وقت واحد في المسار التحفيزي لنموذج طلبات التوظيف - الموارد (JD-R). قد تم جمع بيانات إستطلاع الرأي من471 متطوع من المشاركين وتحليلها بإستخدام أساليب معادلة النموذج البنائي. خلافاً للتوقعات، فإن النتائج لم تظهر أن المشاركة تتوسط في العلاقة بين موارد الوظيفة و رضا العمل التطوعي (1)، بين موارد الوظيفة والتصميم على المواصلة (2)، وبين موارد العمل والصحة (3). النتائج ، أظهرت، أن الترابط يتوسط في العلاقة بين موارد الوظيفة ورضا المتطوعين(4)، بين موارد الوظيفة والتصميم على المواصلة (5) ، وبين موارد الوظيفة والصحة (6). هذه النتائج تضيف دعم للمسار التحفيزي لنظرية (JD-R) لفهم رفاهية المتطوعين والإحتفاظ بها في منظمات الرعاية الصحية، لكن تقترح أن تتوسع النظرية لتشمل الترابط كوسيط.

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Copyright information

© International Society for Third-Sector Research and The John's Hopkins University 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jasmine-Yan Huynh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jacques C. Metzer
    • 1
  • Anthony H. Winefield
    • 1
  1. 1.Work & Stress Research Group, Centre for Applied Psychological Research, School of Psychology, Magill CampusUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia

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