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Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture, Organizational Effectiveness, and Programme Outcomes in Non-Governmental Organizations

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Abstract

This study examines whether transformational leadership influences organizational culture that furthers NGOs’ effectiveness. It also examines whether transformational leadership at the top directly influences NGOs’ effectiveness. Further, it tests whether NGO effectiveness improves the programme outcomes in terms of health, income, education, and happiness of villagers. Data were collected from 312 NGOs in Jharkhand state (India). Transformational leadership, organizational culture, and NGO effectiveness were assessed from NGO personnel using standard instruments, and programme outcomes on health, income, education, and happiness were evaluated from villagers using wooden cubes. Findings reveal that transformational leadership builds organizational culture that furthers NGO effectiveness. Transformational leadership does not influence directly NGO effectiveness but it enhances NGO effectiveness promoting organizational culture. Furthermore, NGO effectiveness improves the outcomes of programmes undertaken by NGOs in terms of better health, income, education, and happiness of beneficiaries.

Résumé

Cette étude vise à déterminer si un leadership transformationnel influe sur la culture organisationnelle des ONG de manière à accroître leur efficacité. Elle examine également si l’exercice d’un leadership transformationnel au sommet de la hiérarchie influence directement l’efficacité des ONG. En outre, elle vérifie si l’accroissement de l’efficacité des ONG améliore les résultats des programmes en termes de santé, de revenus, d’éducation et de bien-être des villageois. Les données utilisées ont été collectées auprès de 312 ONG dans l’état du Jharkhand (Inde). Le leadership transformationnel, la culture organisationnelle et l’efficacité des ONG ont été évalués auprès du personnel des ONG à l’aide d’outils standard; les effets du programme sur la santé, les revenus, l’éducation et le bien-être ont été évalués auprès des villageois à l’aide de cubes en bois. L’étude révèle que, sans influer directement sur l’efficacité des ONG, le leadership transformationnel promeut une culture organisationnelle qui améliore cette efficacité. De plus, cette amélioration a un effet favorable sur les résultats en termes de santé, de revenus, d’éducation et de bien-être des bénéficiaires des programmes mis en œuvre.

Zusammenfassung

Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, ob eine transformative Führung auf eine Organisationskultur Einfluss nimmt, welche die Effektivität nicht-staatlicher Organisationen fördert. Es wird zudem untersucht, ob sich die transformative Führung in der obersten Ebene direkt auf die Effektivität nicht-staatlicher Organisationen auswirkt. Weiterhin wird geprüft, ob die Effektivität nicht-staatlicher Organisationen den Programmerfolg mit Hinblick auf die Gesundheit, das Einkommen, die Bildung und die Zufriedenheit von Dorfbewohnern erhöht. Es wurden Daten von 312 nicht-staatlichen Organisationen im indischen Bundesstaat Jharkhand erfasst. Die transformative Führung, Organisationskultur und Effektivität nicht-staatlicher Organisationen wurde von den Mitarbeitern der nicht-staatlichen Organisationen mithilfe von Standardinstrumenten bewertet, während der Programmerfolg mit Hinblick auf die Gesundheit, das Einkommen, die Bildung und die Zufriedenheit von den Dorfbewohnern mithilfe von Holzwürfeln gemessen wurde. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass eine transformative Führung eine Organisationskultur schafft, die die Effektivität nicht-staatlicher Organisationen fördert. Die transformative Führung übt keinen direkten Einfluss auf die Effektivität nicht-staatlicher Organisationen aus, doch begünstigt ihre Effektivität, indem sie die Organisationskultur fördert. Des weiteren erhöht die Effektivität nicht-staatlicher Organisationen deren Programmerfolg mit Hinblick auf eine bessere Gesundheit, ein besseres Einkommen, eine bessere Bildung und größere Zufriedenheit der Nutztragenden.

Resumen

Este estudio examina si el liderazgo transformacional influye en la cultura organizativa que fomenta la efectividad de las ONGs. También examina si el liderazgo transformacional en la cúpula influye directamente en la efectividad de las ONGs. Asimismo, pone a prueba si la efectividad de las ONGs mejora los resultados del programa en términos de salud, ingresos, educación y felicidad de los campesinos. Los datos fueron recopilados a partir de 312 ONGs en el estado de Jharkhand (India). Se evaluaron el liderazgo transformacional, la cultura organizativa y la efectividad de las ONGs a partir del personal de las ONGs utilizando instrumentos estándar, y se analizaron los resultados del programa sobre la salud, los ingresos, la educación y la felicidad a partir de los campesinos utilizando cubos de madera. Los hallazgos revelan que el liderazgo transformacional construye la cultura organizativa que fomenta la efectividad de las ONGs. El liderazgo transformacional no influye directamente en la efectividad de las ONGs pero aumenta su efectividad promoviendo la cultura organizativa. Asimismo, la efectividad de las ONGs mejora los resultados de los programas emprendidos por las ONGs en términos de mejor salud, mayores ingresos, mejor educación y mayor felicidad de los beneficiarios.

摘要

本项研究主要验证了转化型领导是否会影响组织文化,并进一步影响非政府组织的运作效力。本文还探讨了来自最高层的转化型领导是否能够直接影响非政府组织的运作效力。文中还进一步验证了非政府组织的运作效力是否能够提升项目成效,主要是指项目所涉及的村民们的健康、收入、教育和幸福感这几项指标。研究者统计了来自印度恰尔肯德邦的 312 个非政府组织的数据。通过非政府组织的工作人员,研究者利用标准工具对转化型领导、组织文化以及非政府组织的运作效力进行了评估;而对于项目成效,研究者利用木方工具评估了村民的健康、收入、教育和幸福感等。结果显示,转化型领导建立起的特定组织文化能够推动非政府组织的效力提升。转化型领导不能直接影响非政府组织的运作效力,但是却能够提升组织文化的推广效果。而进一步地,非政府组织的运作效力能够促进其承担项目的成效,为受益人群带来更多更好的健康、收入、教育和幸福感。

要約

本研究では、変革型リーダーシップがNGOの有効性を促進する組織文化に影響を及ぼすかを調査する。また、変革型リーダーシップのトップが直接NGOの有効性に影響を及ぼすかも検討する。さらに、NGOの有効性が村人の健康、収入、教育、幸福に関するプログラム結果を改善するかを検証する。データはインドのジャールカンドのNGO312団体から集積した。変革型リーダーシップ、組織文化、NGOの有効性については、NGOの人員が標準の手法を用いて査定した。また健康、収入、教育、幸福に対するプログラム結果は、村人が木製の立方体を用いて評価した。調査結果から、変革型リーダーシップがNGOの有効性を促進する組織文化を構築することが明らかになった。変革型リーダーシップは直接NGOの有効性に影響を及ぼさないが、組織文化を助成するNGOの有効性を高めるといえる。その上、NGOが実施した受益者のより良い健康、収入、教育、幸福に関するプログラム結果からNGOの有効性は改善されることがわかった。

ملخص

هذه الدراسة تفحص ما إذا كان تحول القيادة يؤثرعلى الثقافة التنظيمية التي تعزز فعالية المنظمات الغير حكومية (NGOs). إنها تفحص أيضا عما إذا كانت القيادة التحويلية في المستوى العالي تؤثر بشكل مباشرعلى فعالية المنظمات الغير حكومية (NGOs). علاوة على ذلك، تختبر إذا كانت فعالية المنظمات الغير حكومية (NGOs) تحسن نتائج البرنامج من حيث الصحة ، الدخل، التعليم، والسعادة للقرويين. تم جمع بيانات من 312 منظمة غير حكومية (NGOs) في ولاية جهارخاند (الهند). تم تقييم القيادة التحويلية، والثقافة التنظيمية، وفعالية المنظمات الغير حكومية (NGOs) من موظفي المنظمات الغير حكومية (NGOs) بإستخدام الأدوات المعيارية، و تقييم نتائج البرامج على الصحة، الدخل، التعليم ، و السعادة من القرويين بإستخدام مكعبات خشبية. النتائج تكشف عن أن القيادة التحويلية تبني الثقافة التنظيمية التي تعزز فعالية المنظمات الغير حكومية (NGOs). القيادة التحويلية لا تؤثر على فعالية المنظمات الغير حكومية(NGOs) بشكل مباشر ولكنها تعزز فعالية المنظمات الغير حكومية (NGOs) الذي يعضد الثقافة التنظيمية. علاوة على ذلك، المنظمات الغير حكومية(NGO) تحسن فعالية نتائج البرامج التي تنفذها المنظمات الغير حكومية (NGOs) من حيث تحسين الصحة، الدخل، التعليم ، والسعادة للمستفيدين.

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Correspondence to M. S. A. Mahalinga Shiva.

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Mahalinga Shiva, M.S.A., Suar, D. Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture, Organizational Effectiveness, and Programme Outcomes in Non-Governmental Organizations. Voluntas 23, 684–710 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-011-9230-4

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Keywords

  • Transformational leadership
  • Organizational culture
  • NGO effectiveness
  • Programmes outcomes