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The Influence of Organizational Culture in Women Participation and Inclusion in Voluntary Organizations in Italy

Abstract

The aim of this study is to analyze the rules whereby women are selected for leadership and management roles and to describe the cultural values that can foster their inclusion and participation in Italian Voluntary Organizations. Two hypotheses: the organizational culture that governs these organizations is necessarily oriented toward acceptance, involvement and participation, and the rules and setting must be flexible and inclusive of all members in order to enable each organization to survive. Methodology was based on 91 semi-structured interviews. Findings indicate that Italian Voluntary Organizations must necessarily embrace an organizational culture whose rules and norms are oriented toward attracting men and women to join and encouraging them to participate. Implications for for-profit organizations are also discussed.

Résumé

Le but de ce travail est d’analyser les modalités par lesquelles les femmes sont choisies pour exercer des rôles de responsabilité et de gestion, et de décrire les valeurs culturelles qui peuvent favoriser leur intégration et leur participation dans les associations italiennes. Deux hypothèses sont émises : la culture organisationnelle qui conditionne ces organisations est nécessairement orientée vers l’acceptation, l’implication et la participation ; les règles et le contexte doivent être flexibles et accorder une place à l’ensemble des membres afin de permettre à chaque entité de survivre. La méthode repose sur 91 entretiens semi-directifs. Les résultats indiquent que les associations italiennes doivent nécessairement adopter une culture organisationnelle dont les règles et les normes visent à attirer l’adhésion d’hommes et de femmes et à les encourager à participer. Les conséquences à tirer pour les organisations à but non lucratif sont également étudiées.

Zusammenfassung

Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Untersuchung der Regeln, nach denen Frauen für Führungs- und Managementpositionen ausgewählt werden, und die Beschreibung der kulturellen Werte, welche ihre Einbeziehung und Mitwirkung in italienischen gemeinnützigen Organisationen fördern können. Hierzu werden zwei Hypothesen aufgestellt: Die Organisationskultur, von der diese Organisationen geleitet werden, orientiert sich zwangsläufig an Akzeptanz, Einbeziehung und Beteiligung, und die Regeln und Rahmenbedingungen müssen flexibel sein und alle Mitglieder einschließen, um den Fortbestand einer jeden Organisation zu gewährleisten. Die Methodik beruhte auf 91 halbstandardisierten Befragungen. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass italienische gemeinnützige Organisationen zwangsläufig eine Organisationskultur annehmen müssen, deren Regeln und Normen darauf ausgerichtet sind, Männer und Frauen anzuziehen und sie zur Mitwirkung zu animieren. Implikationen für gewinnorientierte Organisationen werden ebenfalls diskutiert.

Resumen

el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las reglas mediante las cuales se seleccionan las mujeres para puestos de liderazgo y dirección, así como describir los valores culturales que pueden fomentar su inclusión y participación en las Organizaciones Voluntarias Italianas. Dos hipótesis: la cultura organizativa que rige estas organizaciones se orienta necesariamente hacia la aceptación y la participación; y las reglas y el entorno deben ser flexibles e incluir a todos los miembros para permitir la supervivencia de cada organización. La metodología se basa en 91 entrevistas semiestructuradas. Los hallazgos indican que las Organizaciones Voluntarias Italianas deben necesariamente abrazar una cultura organizativa cuyas normas estén orientadas a atraer la unión y la participación de los hombres y mujeres. También se analizan las implicaciones para las organizaciones sin ánimo de lucro.

摘要

本文的目的是分析推选妇女担任领导和管理职务的规则,并描述了可以培养其包容和参与意大利志愿者组织的文化价值。两个假设:这些组织的治理文化必然是以接受、参与和融入为导向的,并且其规则和设置必须是灵活的,对所有成员都具有包容性,以使每一个组织都能生存。方法是基于91次半结构化面试。研究结果显示,意大利志愿者组织必须接受 一种以规则和准则是吸引男性和女性加入并鼓励他们参加为导向的组织文化。本文还讨论了对非营利组织可能的影响。

要約

要約: 本論文の目的は、女性がリーダーシップと管理する役職に選出される基準を分析し、イタリアのボランティア団体における参加と関与を推進する文化的価値観について言及することである。2つの仮説、つまり各組織を管理する組織的な文化においては、承認、関与、参加への適応が必要となること、各組織が生き残るためには、すべてのメンバーが基準と設定を柔軟に包括する必要があることが考察される。方法として、準構造化的面接91件に基づいた調査を行った。 調査結果では、イタリアのボランティア団体では、必ず男女が参加できるような魅力ある規則と基準を有する組織文化を受け入れる必要があることがわかった。また営利団体についても検証する。

ملخص

ملخص: يهدف هذا العمل إلى تحليل المبادئ التي بها يتم إختيار النساء لأدوار الإدارة والقيادة ووصف القيم الثقافية التي يمكن أن تعزز الإشتمال والمشاركة في “المنظمات التطوعية الإيطالية”. فرضيتان وهما: الثقافة التنظيمية التي تحكم هذه المنظمات وهي بالضرورة موجهة نحو القبول، والمشاركة، والحضور، والمبادئ والإعداد يجب أن تكون مرنة وشاملة لجميع الأعضاء لتمكين كل منظمة على الإستمرار. إستندت المنهجية على 91 مقابلة شبه منظمة. وتشير النتائج إلى أن “المنظمات التطوعية الإيطالية” يجب بالضرورة أن تبني ثقافة تنظيمية قواعدها ومعاييرهاموجهة نحو إجتذاب الرجال والنساء على الإنضمام وتشجيعهم على المشاركة. الآثار المترتبة عن المنظمات الهادفة للربح تم مناقشتها أيضاً.

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Fig. 1

Notes

  1. 1.

    The program uses symbols to indicate the type of root. If the word is followed by the symbol <, this means that only the root of the word is recognized. The + symbol, on the other hand, means that the terminations and multiple forms of the same root are recognized. An example of the first type is the word actual<, which stands for actuality, actualized, actually; for the second type, the word wom+ may refer to women and woman.

  2. 2.

    In 2003, for each organization that closed down, more than 10 new ones were registered (Source: ISTAT Italian National Institute of Statistics 2005).

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Correspondence to Daniela Acquadro Maran.

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Maran, D.A., Soro, G. The Influence of Organizational Culture in Women Participation and Inclusion in Voluntary Organizations in Italy. Voluntas 21, 481–496 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-010-9143-7

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Keywords

  • Gender
  • Social role
  • Organizational culture
  • Italy