Advertisement

From Hōshi to Borantia: Transformations of Volunteering in Japan and Implications for Foreign Policy

  • Nichole GeorgeouEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

This study explores the relationship between state–citizen relations and changing notions of volunteering in Japan. I map Japan’s state–citizen relations through an analysis of the transformations of volunteering in Japan from “hōshi” (mutual obligation) to “borantia” (borrowed from the English “volunteer”). The article broadly considers these paradigm shifts in terms of the context of the role International Non Profit Organisations (INPOs) play in Japanese foreign policy.

Keywords

Japan Volunteering Civil society State–citizen relations Foreign policy 

Résumé

Cette étude examine le lien entre les relations État-citoyen et les notions changeantes du bénévolat au Japon. J’esquisse le profil des relations entre l’État japonais et le citoyen à travers l’analyse des mutations qui ont touché le bénévolat au Japon, concept passant de « hōshi » (obligation mutuelle) à « borantia » (emprunt du mot anglais « bénévole »). L’article examine, dans l’ensemble, ces changements de paradigme au niveau du contexte du rôle des associations internationales à but non lucratif (AISBL) dans la politique étrangère du Japon.

Zusammenfassung

Diese Studie untersucht den Zusammenhang zwischen den Bürger-Staat-Beziehungen und der sich wandelnden Vorstellung von gemeinnütziger Arbeit in Japan. Die Bürger-Staat-Beziehungen in Japan werden hierbei mithilfe einer Analyse der Transformation der gemeinnützigen Arbeit von „hōshi” (gegenseitige Verpflichtung) zu „borantia” (dem englischen Begriff „volunteer” – zu deutsch „ehrenamtlicher Mitarbeiter” – entlehnt) dargestellt. Die Abhandlung betrachtet diesen Paradigmenwechsel generell im Zusammenhang mit der Rolle internationaler Nonprofit-Organisationen in der japanischen Außenpolitik.

Resumen

El presente estudio analiza la relación entre el estado y los ciudadanos, así como las nociones cambiantes del voluntariado en Japón. En él, trazo un esquema de las relaciones entre el estado y los ciudadanos a través de un análisis de las transformaciones del voluntariado en Japón, que ha pasado de ser una “hôshi” (obligación mutua) a un “borantia” (préstamo del vocablo inglés volunteer, ‘voluntariado’). En el trabajo se analizan a grandes rasgos estos cambios paradigmáticos en base al contexto y la función de las organizaciones internacionales sin ánimo de lucro (INPO) en la política extranjera japonesa.

摘要

本研究探讨了日本的国家与公民关系和正在转变的志愿服务观念这两者之间的关系。我通过一项对日本志愿服务由”hōshi”(相互的义务)转化为”borantia” (借用了英语中的”志愿者”)的分析,编排提供了日本的国家与公民关系。本论文广泛考虑了以日本外交政策中”国际非盈利组织”(英语缩写 INPO)所起作用方面为条件下这些范式的转移。

要約

本研究では、日本における県民の関係と変化するボランティアの概念との関わり合いについて検討する。「奉仕」(相互の義務)から「ボランティア」(イギリスの「ボランティア」からの借用)までの日本におけるボランティアの転換を分析することによって、日本の県民の関係を検証する。本論文は日本の外交政策における国際非営利団体 (INPO) の役割の背景に関するパラダイム・シフトを広く考察する。

ملخص

هذه الدراسة تفحص العلاقة بين علاقات الدولة- المواطن وتغيير مفاهيم العمل التطوعي في اليابان. لقد رسمت خريطة لعلاقات دولة اليابان- المواطن خلال تحليل تحولات العمل التطوعي في اليابان من “هوشي” (الإلتزام المتبادل) إلى ““borantia(المستعارة من الإنجليزية “المتطوعين”). هذا البحث يأخذ بعين الإعتبار على نطاق واسع هذه التحولات في النماذج من حيث سياق دور المنظمات الغير ربحية الدولية (INPOs) في السياسة الخارجية اليابانية.

References

  1. Amenomori, T. (1997). Japan. In L. M. Salamon & H. K. Anheier (Eds.), Defining the nonprofit sector (pp. 188–214). Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Harney, A. (2002). Chequebook diplomat changes role: Japan is seeking to be seen as a serious peacemaker, but critics warn it is not yet ready for the task. Financial Times, January 24, 9.Google Scholar
  3. Hasegawa, K., Shinohara, C., & Broadbent, P. (2007). The effects of ‘social expectation’ on the development of civil society in Japan. Journal of Civil Society, 3(2), 179–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hirata, K. (2002). Civil society in Japan: The growing role of NGOs and Tokyo’s aid and development policy. New York, USA: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  5. Iokibe, M. (1999). Japan’s civil society: An historical overview. In T. Yamamoto (Ed.), Deciding the public interest in Japan: Civil society in the making (pp. 51–96). Tokyo: Japan Centre for International Exchange.Google Scholar
  6. JCIE. (2004). Civil society monitor. No. 9. Retrieved 1/06/2005, from www.jcie.or.jp.
  7. JCIE. (April 2005). Civil society monitor. No. 10 April. Retrieved 1/06/2005, from www.jcie.or.jp.
  8. JCIE. (December 2003). Civil society monitor. No. 8 December. Retrieved 1/06/2005, from www.jcie.or.jp.
  9. JCIE. (July 2001). Civil society monitor. No. 6 July. Retrieved 1/06/2005, from www.jcie.or.jp.
  10. JCIE. (September 1999). Civil society monitor. No. 5 September. Retrieved 1/06/2005, from www.jcie.or.jp.
  11. Kambayashi, T. (2005). Japan quake legacy: Volunteering; ten years after Kobe, civic activism has taken hold in a country more accustomed to government initiative. Christian Science Monitor (Boston, Mass.), Jan 19, 6.Google Scholar
  12. Kingston, J. (2004). Japan’s quiet transformation: Social change and civil society in the twenty-first century. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY: RoutledgeCurzon.Google Scholar
  13. Kuroda, K. (2003). Japan-based non-governmental organisations in pursuit of human security. Japan Forum, 15(2), 227–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lebra, T. S. (1974). Intergenerational continuity and discontinuity in moral values among Japanese. In W. P. L. Takie Sugiyama Lebra (Ed.), Japanese culture and behavior: Selected readings (pp. 90–116). Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.Google Scholar
  15. Lebra, T. S., & Lebra, W. P. (Eds.). (1974). Japanese culture and behavior: Selected readings. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.Google Scholar
  16. Long, W. J. (1999). Nonproliferation as a goal of Japanese Foreign Assistance. Asian Survey, 39(2), 328–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mackie, V. (2003). Feminism in modern Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Matsubara, A. (2002). The NPO law and the NPO tax support system. Retrieved 12/05/03, from http://www.jnpoc.ne.jp/English/library/NPOlaw-Matsubara.pdf.
  19. Nakano, L. Y. (1998). Civic volunteers in a Japanese neighborhood: Negotiating status in a marginal place. Philosophy, Yale University.Google Scholar
  20. Nickerson, C. (1992). Japan ponders a larger role in the world arena. Boston Globe, Feburary, 1.Google Scholar
  21. Ohnuki-Tierney, E. (1993). Rice as self: Japanese identities through time. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Pekkanen, R. (2000). Japan’s new politics: The case of the NPO law. Journal of Japanese Studies, 26(1), 111–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pekkanen, R. (2004). After the developmental state: Civil society in Japan. Journal of East Asian Studies, 4, 363–388.Google Scholar
  24. Pilling, D. (2004a). Japanese hostages struggle with the burden of disgrace. Financial Times, May 3, 18.Google Scholar
  25. Pilling, D. (2004b). Lunch with the FT. Financial Times, London (UK), July 17, 14.Google Scholar
  26. Sasaki-Uemura, W. (2001). Organising the spontaneous: Citizen protest in postwar Japan. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar
  27. Schreurs, M. A. (2002). Democratic transition and environmental civil society: Japan and South Korea compared. The Good Society, 11(2), 57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Smith, B. (1986). Democracy derailed: Citizen’s movements in historical perspective. In G. McCormack & Y. Sugimoto (Eds.), Democracy in contemporary Japan (pp. 157–172). Sydney: Hale and Iremonger Pty Ltd.Google Scholar
  29. Takao, Y. (2001). The rise of the “Third Sector”. Asian Survey, 23(2).Google Scholar
  30. Upham, F. K. (1993). Unplaced persons and movements for place. In A. Gordon (Ed.), Postwar Japan as history (pp. 325–346). Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  31. Wanner, B. (1998). Japan’s growing nonprofit sector responds to government shortfalls. New York: Japan Economic Institute.Google Scholar
  32. Yamamoto, T. (1998). The state and the non-profit sector in Japan. In T. Amenomori & T. Yamamoto (Eds.), The non-profit sector in Japan (pp. 119–144). Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Yamamoto, T. (1999). Emergence of Japan’s civil society and it’s future challenges. In T. Yamamoto (Ed.), Deciding the public good: Governance and civil society in Japan (pp. 97–124). Tokyo; New York: Japan Centre for International Exchange.Google Scholar
  34. Yasumoto, D. T. (1989–1990). Why aid? Japan as an “Aid Great Power”. Pacific Affairs, 62(4), 490–503.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society for Third-Sector Research and The John's Hopkins University 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social Sciences, Media and Communications (SSMAC), Affiliated with the Centre for Asia Pacific Social Transformations (CAPSTRANS)The University of WollongongWollongongAustralia

Personalised recommendations