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Low Duty Cycle, Energy-Efficient and Mobility-Based Boarder Node—MAC Hybrid Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

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The need for an efficient medium access control (MAC) protocol is extremely important with the emergence of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The MAC protocol has increasingly been significant in advancing the performance of WSNs. In this paper, a low duty cycle, energy-efficient and mobility-based Boarder Node Medium Access Control (BN-MAC) hybrid protocol is introduced for WSNs that controls overhearing, idle listening and congestion issues by preserving energy over WSNs. BN-MAC leverages the features of contention and schedule-based MAC protocols. The contention encompasses the novel semi-synchronous approach that helps obtain faster access to the medium. The schedule-based part helps reduce the collision and overhearing problems.

The idle listening control (ILC) model is embedded within the BN-MAC that administers the nodes to go to sleep after performing their tasks to saves additional energy. The least distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS) model is used to determine the shortest and most efficient path in a one-hop neighborhood.

Evaluation of the BN-MAC is conducted using network simulator-2 (ns2), then its quality of service (QoS) parameters are compared with other known hybrid MAC protocols including X-MAC, Zebra medium access control (Z-MAC), mobility-aware SMAC (MS-MAC), advertisement-based MAC (A-MAC), Adaptive Duty Cycle SMAC (ADC-SMAC) and Mobile Sensor (MobiSense) MAC protocols.

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  1. 1.

    A weighted greedy algorithm: It can be considered as backtracking algorithm where each decision point “the best” selection is already known and accordingly can be chosen without having to think over any of the substitute.

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    Semi-synchronous: This feature is desirable for decreasing latency and energy consumption for several WSN application areas to improve the throughput.

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    Anycast communication: It is message mechanism that only sends control message to the nearest node within the group of possible receivers or may pick several nodes with subject to condition.

  4. 4.

    Short preamble: It is used to make the receiver to be ready that data is on its way. In addition, it is also first portion of the Physical layer Convergence Protocol/Procedure (PLCP) Protocol Data Unit (PDU). The short preamble lets the receiver to get the wireless signal and coordinate itself with the transmitter.

  5. 5.

    Promiscuous mode: It causes the controller to permit all traffic rather than allowing only the frames. Promiscuous mode is also used to detect network connectivity problems.

  6. 6.

    Relative Standard Deviation (RSD): It is the absolute value for deviation of coefficient and defined as a percentage. It is also commonly used when doing quality assurance.

  7. 7.

    Gini coefficient: It is an inequality distribution measure that is expressed as the ratio with values between 0 and 1.


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Correspondence to Abdul Razaque.

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Razaque, A., Elleithy, K.M. Low Duty Cycle, Energy-Efficient and Mobility-Based Boarder Node—MAC Hybrid Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. J Sign Process Syst 81, 265–284 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11265-014-0947-3

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  • Wireless sensor networks
  • Medium access control protocols
  • Energy efficiency
  • Mobility
  • Handling mass casualties