This paper considers partial-column radix-2 FFT processors and realizations of butterfly operations. The area and power-efficiency of butterfly units to be used in the proposed processor organization based on bit-parallel multipliers, distributed arithmetic, and CORDIC are analyzed and compared. All the selected butterfly units are synthesized onto the same 0.11 μ ASIC technology allowing the results to be compared. The proposed processor organization permits the area of the FFT implementation to be traded against the computation time, thus the final structure can be easily tailored according to the requirements of the given application. The power consumption comparison shows that butterflies based on bit-parallel multipliers are power-efficient but have limitations on clock frequency. Butterflies based on distributed arithmetic could be used when higher clock frequencies are used. If extremely long FFTs are needed, the CORDIC based butterflies are applicable.
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Jarmo Takala received his M.Sc. (hons) degree in Electronics and Dr.Tech. degree in Information Technology from Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland (TUT) in 1987 and 1999, respectively. From 1992 to 1996, he was a Research Scientist at VTT-Automation, Tampere, Finland. Between 1995 and 1996, he was a Senior Research Engineer at Nokia Research Center, Tampere, Finland. From 1996 to 1999, he was a Researcher at TUT. Currently, he is Professor in Computer Engineering at TUT and head of the Insitute of Digital and Computer Systems of TUT. His research interests include circuit techniques, parallel architectures, and design methodologies for digital signal processing systems.
Konsta Punkka received his M.Sc. degree (hons) in Electrical Engineering from Tampere University of Technology (TUT), in 2002. He is currently working towards his Dr.Tech. degree as a research scientist in the Institute of Digital and Computer Systems at TUT. His research interests include optimization and implementation of DSP architectures.
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Takala, J., Punkka, K. Scalable FFT Processors and Pipelined Butterfly Units. J VLSI Sign Process Syst Sign Image Video Technol 43, 113–123 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11265-006-7265-3
- application-specific integrated circuit
- parallel processing
- distributed arithmetic