# Survey on Block Matching Motion Estimation Algorithms and Architectures with New Results

## Abstract.

Block matching motion estimation is the heart of video coding systems. During the last two decades, hundreds of fast algorithms and VLSI architectures have been proposed. In this paper, we try to provide an extensive exploration of motion estimation with our new developments. The main concepts of fast algorithms can be classified into six categories: reduction in search positions, simplification of matching criterion, bitwidth reduction, predictive search, hierarchical search, and fast full search. Comparisons of various algorithms in terms of video quality and computational complexity are given as useful guidelines for software applications. As for hardware implementations, full search architectures derived from systolic mapping are first introduced. The systolic arrays can be divided into inter-type and intra-type with 1-D, 2-D, and tree structures. Hexagonal plots are presented for system designers to clearly evaluate the architectures in six aspects including gate count, required frequency, hard-ware utilization, memory bandwidth, memory bitwidth, and latency. Next, architectures supporting fast algorithms are also reviewed. Finally, we propose our algorithmic and architectural co-development. The main idea is quick checking of the entire search range with simplified matching criterion to globally eliminate impossible candidates, followed by finer selection among potential best matched candidates. The operations of the two stages are mapped to the same hardware for resource sharing. Simulation results show that our design is ten times more area-speed efficient than full search architectures while the video quality is competitively the same.

## Keywords:

block matching motion estimation global elimination algorithm VLSI architecture## Preview

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