International Journal of Computer Vision

, Volume 115, Issue 3, pp 211–252 | Cite as

ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge

  • Olga RussakovskyEmail author
  • Jia Deng
  • Hao Su
  • Jonathan Krause
  • Sanjeev Satheesh
  • Sean Ma
  • Zhiheng Huang
  • Andrej Karpathy
  • Aditya Khosla
  • Michael Bernstein
  • Alexander C. Berg
  • Li Fei-Fei


The ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge is a benchmark in object category classification and detection on hundreds of object categories and millions of images. The challenge has been run annually from 2010 to present, attracting participation from more than fifty institutions. This paper describes the creation of this benchmark dataset and the advances in object recognition that have been possible as a result. We discuss the challenges of collecting large-scale ground truth annotation, highlight key breakthroughs in categorical object recognition, provide a detailed analysis of the current state of the field of large-scale image classification and object detection, and compare the state-of-the-art computer vision accuracy with human accuracy. We conclude with lessons learned in the 5 years of the challenge, and propose future directions and improvements.


Dataset Large-scale Benchmark Object recognition Object detection 



We thank Stanford University, UNC Chapel Hill, Google and Facebook for sponsoring the challenges, and NVIDIA for providing computational resources to participants of ILSVRC2014. We thank our advisors over the years: Lubomir Bourdev, Alexei Efros, Derek Hoiem, Jitendra Malik, Chuck Rosenberg and Andrew Zisserman. We thank the PASCAL VOC organizers for partnering with us in running ILSVRC2010-2012. We thank all members of the Stanford vision lab for supporting the challenges and putting up with us along the way. Finally, and most importantly, we thank all researchers that have made the ILSVRC effort a success by competing in the challenges and by using the datasets to advance computer vision.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olga Russakovsky
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jia Deng
    • 2
  • Hao Su
    • 1
  • Jonathan Krause
    • 1
  • Sanjeev Satheesh
    • 1
  • Sean Ma
    • 1
  • Zhiheng Huang
    • 1
  • Andrej Karpathy
    • 1
  • Aditya Khosla
    • 3
  • Michael Bernstein
    • 1
  • Alexander C. Berg
    • 4
  • Li Fei-Fei
    • 1
  1. 1.Stanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  4. 4.UNC Chapel HillChapel HillUSA

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