A Basis Illumination Approach to BRDF Measurement
- 453 Downloads
Realistic descriptions of surface reflectance have long been a topic of interest in both computer vision and computer graphics research. In this paper, we describe a novel high speed approach for the acquisition of bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs). We develop a new theory for directly measuring BRDFs in a basis representation by projecting incident light as a sequence of basis functions from a spherical zone of directions. We derive an orthonormal basis over spherical zones that is ideally suited for this task. BRDF values outside the zonal directions are extrapolated by re-projecting the zonal measurements into a spherical harmonics basis, or by fitting analytical reflection models to the data. For specular materials, we experiment with alternative basis acquisition approaches such as compressive sensing with a random subset of the higher order orthonormal zonal basis functions, as well as measuring the response to basis defined by an analytical model as a way of optically fitting the BRDF to such a representation. We verify this approach with a compact optical setup that requires no moving parts and only a small number of image measurements. Using this approach, a BRDF can be measured in just a few minutes.
KeywordsReflectance Computational illumination Object scanning and acquisition Optics Compressive sensing
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ashikhmin, M. (2006). Distribution-based BRDFs. http://jesper.kalliope.org/blog/library/dbrdfs.pdf.
- Ashikhmin, M., & Shirley, P. (2000). An anisotropic phong BRDF model. Journal of Graphics Tools, 5(2), 25–32. Google Scholar
- Ashikhmin, M., Premośe, S., & Shirley, P. (2000). A microfacet-based BRDF generator. In SIGGRAPH ’00: Proceedings of the 27th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques (pp. 65–74). Google Scholar
- Basri, R., & Jacobs, D. W. (2003). Lambertian reflectance and linear subspaces. IEEE PAMI, 25(2), 218–233. Google Scholar
- Candés, E., & Romberg, J. (2005). Practical signal recovery from random projections. In Proc. of IS&T/SPIE s 17th Annual Symposium on Electronic Imaging. Google Scholar
- Cornell (2005). CORNELL light measurement laboratory. http://www.graphics.cornell.edu/research/measure/.
- CUReT (1999). CUReT: Columbia-utrech reflectance and texture. http://www.cs.columbia.edu/CAVE/curet/.
- Dana, K. (2001). BRDF/BTF measurement device. In Proc. of ICCV ’01 (pp. 460–466). Google Scholar
- Debevec, P., & Malik, J. (1997). Recovering high dynamic range radiance maps from photographs. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH ’97 (pp. 369–378). Google Scholar
- Gautron, P., Křivánek, J., Pattanaik, S., & Bouatouch, K. (2004). A novel hemispherical basis for accurate and efficient rendering. In Eurographics symposium on rendering (pp. 321–330). Google Scholar
- Ghosh, A., Achutha, S., Heidrich, W., & O’Toole, M. (2007). BRDF acquisition with basis illumination. In Proc. of IEEE international conference on computer vision (ICCV). Google Scholar
- He, X. D., Heynen, P. O., Phillips, R. L., Torrance, K. E., Salesin, D. H., & Greenberg, D. P. (1992). A fast and accurate light reflection model. In SIGGRAPH ’92: Proceedings of the 19th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques (pp. 253–254). Google Scholar
- He, X. D., Torrance, K. E., Sillion, F. X., & Greenberg, P. (1991). A comprehensive physical model for light reflection. In SIGGRAPH ’91: Proceedings of the 18th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques (pp. 175–186). Google Scholar
- Koenderink, J., van Doorn, A., & Stavridi, M. (1996). Bidirectional reflection distribution function expressed in terms of surface scattering modes. ECCV ’96. 4th European Conference on Computer Vision, 2, 28–39. Google Scholar
- Lafortune, E., Foo, S.-C., Torrance, K., & Greenberg, D. (1997). Non-linear approximation of reflectance functions. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH ’97 (pp. 117–126). Google Scholar
- Lensch, H., Kautz, J., Goesele, M., Heidrich, W., & Seidel, H.-P. (2001). Image-based reconstruction of spatially varying materials. In Eurographics Workshop on Rendering (pp. 104–115). Google Scholar
- Ma, W.-C., Hawkins, T., Peers, P., Chabert, C.-F., Wiess, M., & Debevec, P. (2007). Rapid acquisition of specular and diffuse normal maps from polarized spherical gradient illumination. In Proc. Eurographics symposium on rendering. Google Scholar
- Malzbender, T., Gelb, D., & Wolters, H. (2001). Polynomial texture maps. In SIGGRAPH ’01: Proceedings of the 28th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques (pp. 519–528). Google Scholar
- Mukaigawa, Y., Sumino, K., & Yagi, Y. (2007). High-speed measurement of BRDF using an ellipsoidal mirror and a projector. In Proc. IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (pp. 1–8). Google Scholar
- Ngan, A., Durand, F., & Matusik, W. (2005). Experimental analysis of BRDF models. In Proceedings of the Eurographics Symposium on Rendering (pp. 117–226). Google Scholar
- Nicodemus, F. E., Richmond, J. C., Hsia, J. J., Ginsberg, I. W., & Limperis, T. (1977). Geometric considerations and nomenclature for reflectance. NBS Monograph, 160. Google Scholar
- NIST (2003). NIST reference reflectometer: STARR facility. http://www.physics.nist.gov/Divisions/Div844/facilities/brdf/starr.html.
- Peers, P., & Dutré, P. (2005). Inferring reflectance functions from wavelet noise. In Proc. Eurographics symposium on rendering (pp. 173–181). Google Scholar
- Pharr, M., & Humphreys, G. (2004). Physically based redering. New York: Morgan Kaufmann. Google Scholar
- Press, W., Flannery, B., Teukolsky, S., & Vetterling, W. (1992). Numerical recipes: the art of scientific computing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
- Ramamoorthi, R., & Hanrahan, P. (2001). An efficient representation for irradiance environment maps. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH ’01 (pp. 497–500). Google Scholar
- Ramamoorthi, R., & Hanrahan, P. (2002). Frequency space environment map rendering. In Proc. of ACM SIGGRAPH ’02 (pp. 517–526). Google Scholar
- Sato, I., Okabe, T., Sato, Y., & Ikeuchi, K. (2003). Appearance sampling for obtaining a set of basis images for variable illumination. In Proc. of ICCV’03 (pp. 800–807). Google Scholar
- Schröder, P., & Sweldens, W. (1995). Spherical wavelets: efficiently representing functions on the sphere. In Computer graphics 29, annual conference series (pp. 161–172). Google Scholar
- Ward, G. J. (1992). Measuring and modeling anisotropic reflection. In SIGGRAPH ’92: Proceedings of the 19th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques (pp. 265–272). Google Scholar
- Westin, S., Arvo, J., & Torrance, K. (1992). Predicting reflectance functions from complex surfaces. In Computer graphics 26, annual conference series (pp. 255–264). Google Scholar