International Journal of Computer Vision

, Volume 64, Issue 1, pp 5–30 | Cite as

Three-Dimensional Face Recognition

  • Alexander M. Bronstein
  • Michael M. Bronstein
  • Ron Kimmel


An expression-invariant 3D face recognition approach is presented. Our basic assumption is that facial expressions can be modelled as isometries of the facial surface. This allows to construct expression-invariant representations of faces using the bending-invariant canonical forms approach. The result is an efficient and accurate face recognition algorithm, robust to facial expressions, that can distinguish between identical twins (the first two authors). We demonstrate a prototype system based on the proposed algorithm and compare its performance to classical face recognition methods.

The numerical methods employed by our approach do not require the facial surface explicitly. The surface gradients field, or the surface metric, are sufficient for constructing the expression-invariant representation of any given face. It allows us to perform the 3D face recognition task while avoiding the surface reconstruction stage.


expression-invariant 3D face recognition isometry invariant facial expressions multidimensional scaling 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander M. Bronstein
    • 1
  • Michael M. Bronstein
    • 1
  • Ron Kimmel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceTechnion–Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael

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