Virus Genes

, Volume 55, Issue 6, pp 815–824 | Cite as

Identification of a distinct lineage of aviadenovirus from crane feces

  • Yahiro Mukai
  • Yuriko Tomita
  • Kirill Kryukov
  • So Nakagawa
  • Makoto Ozawa
  • Tsutomu Matsui
  • Keizo Tomonaga
  • Tadashi Imanishi
  • Yoshihiro Kawaoka
  • Tokiko WatanabeEmail author
  • Masayuki HorieEmail author
Original Paper


Viruses are believed to be ubiquitous; however, the diversity of viruses is largely unknown because of the bias of previous research toward pathogenic viruses. Deep sequencing is a promising and unbiased approach to detect viruses from animal-derived materials. Although cranes are known to be infected by several viruses such as influenza A viruses, previous studies targeted limited species of viruses, and thus viruses that infect cranes have not been extensively studied. In this study, we collected crane fecal samples in the Izumi plain in Japan, which is an overwintering site for cranes, and performed metagenomic shotgun sequencing analyses. We detected aviadenovirus-like sequences in the fecal samples and tentatively named the discovered virus crane-associated adenovirus 1 (CrAdV-1). We determined that our sequence accounted for approximately three-fourths of the estimated CrAdV-1 genome size (33,245 bp). The GC content of CrAdV-1 genome is 34.1%, which is considerably lower than that of other aviadenoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that CrAdV-1 clusters with members of the genus Aviadenovirus, but is distantly related to the previously identified aviadenoviruses. The protein sequence divergence between the DNA polymerase of CrAdV-1 and those of other aviadenoviruses is 45.2–46.8%. Based on these results and the species demarcation for the family Adenoviridae, we propose that CrAdV-1 be classified as a new species in the genus Aviadenovirus. Results of this study contribute to a deeper understanding of the diversity and evolution of viruses and provide additional information on viruses that infect cranes, which might lead to protection of the endangered species of cranes.


Adenovirus Aviadenovirus Crane Feces Metagenomics 



We thank Dr. Keiko Takemoto (Kyoto University) for her kind help with the bioinformatic analyses. We also thank Naomi Fujimoto and Mikiko Tanaka for technical support. The supercomputing resource was provided by the Human Genome Center (University of Tokyo). This study was supported by the Hakubi Project at Kyoto University (MH); a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science, Sports, and Technology (MEXT) of Japan, Grant Numbers 17H05821 (MH), 19H04833 (MH),17H05823 (SN), 19H04843 (SN), 16H06429 (TW), 16K21723 (TW), and 16H06434 (TW); the Cooperative Research Program (Joint Usage/Research Center) of the Institute for Frontier Life and Medial Sciences at Kyoto University (SN); and a Grant for contracted research activity related to crane conservation by the City of Izumi, Japan (MO). This research was commissioned by the Kagoshima Crane Conservation Committee.

Author contributions

MO, TM, KT, YK, TW, and MH designed the study. YM, YT, MO, TW, and MH performed the researches. KK, SN, TI and MH analyzed the data. YM, SN, TW, and MH wrote the paper.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals, performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent concerns are not applicable.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary file6 (FASTA 37 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of RNA Viruses, Department of Virus ResearchInstitute for Frontier Life and Medical SciencesKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Mammalian Regulatory Network, Graduate School of BiostudiesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  3. 3.Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical ScienceUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Department of Molecular Life ScienceTokai University School of MedicineTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Joint Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Animal HygieneKagoshima UniversityKagoshimaJapan
  6. 6.Transboundary Animal Diseases Research Center, Joint Faculty of Veterinary MedicineKagoshima UniversityKagoshimaJapan
  7. 7.United Graduate School of Veterinary ScienceYamaguchi UniversityYamaguchiJapan
  8. 8.Kagoshima Crane Conservation CommitteeIzumiJapan
  9. 9.Department of Molecular Virology, Graduate School of MedicineKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  10. 10.Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  11. 11.Department of Special Pathogens, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Institute of Medical ScienceUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  12. 12.Hakubi Center for Advanced ResearchKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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